|Goyal, Sagar - UNIV MINNESOTA|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: July 31, 2004
Publication Date: March 1, 2005
Citation: Ridpath, J.F., Goyal, S.M. 2005. Conclusions and future research. In: Goyal, S.M., Ridpath, J.F., editors. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Diagnosis, Management, and Control. 1st edition. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional. p. 239-243. Technical Abstract: After 60 years of research and 40 years of practicing vaccination, we still have gaps in our knowledge of BVDV and continue to incur heavy economic losses nationwide. This suggests that we need to refocus our research and control programs. New research initiatives are needed to address differences between persistent infections and acute, prolonged, and "localized" persistent infections. Little is known about T cell responses induced by infection or vaccination partially because of the lack of simple, robust and reliable methods for measuring and comparing T cell responses. In the past, control programs have mainly focused on vaccination. Although important, vaccination programs need to be coupled with surveillance and biosecurity programs to be more effective. Current surveillance programs designed to detect classic persistently infected animals will miss acute infections and infections within privileged sites. Effective control programs must include reliable tests for detection of both acute and persistent infections. Biosecurity to prevent introduction of BVDV and vaccination to limit infection are particularly important to vulnerable population of animals such as the fetus, weaned animals with waning passive antibodies, newly arrived animals, and animals with stress. The vaccination strains used since the 1960s (Singer, NADC, NY-1 and C24V) are still in use today and have been shown to belong to a single branch of the pestivirus family tree (BVDV 1). Because of the recognition of genotypes and subgenotypes in BVDV (BVDV 1a, BVDV 1b, BVDV 2), there is an urgent need to re-evaluate the strains used in vaccines.