|Webster, Carl - Kentucky State University|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: July 9, 2004
Publication Date: September 5, 2006
Citation: Lim, C.E., Webster, C. 2006. Nutrient requirements. In: Lim, C.E. and Webster C.D. editors. Tilapia Biology. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. p. 469-501. Technical Abstract: Nutrient requirements of tilapia are reviewed. The dietary protein requirements vary from 20% to 56% depending upon many factors such as species, size, protein quality, level of non-protein energy in the diets, water salinity, water quality, availability of natural food and feeding management. Tilapias require the same 10 essential amino acids as do other fish and shrimp. Quantitative requirements of these amino acids have been determined for Nile and Mossambique tilapia. Information on the use of alternative protein sources on tilapia diets and nutrient digestibility of various feedstuffs are also presented. The dietary protein to digestible energy ratio required for maximum growth of tilapias appears to range from 80 mg/kcal for juveniles and 120 mg/kcal for fry. The optimum dietary lipid level ranges from 6.0% to 12.0%. Linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids are required in the diets for tilapia. Linolenic series fatty acids may also be dietary essential for tilapia but the requirement levels have not been determined. The optimum dietary level of n-6 fatty acids has been estimated to be 0.5% to 1.0%. Complex carbohydrates such as dextrin and starch are better utilized by tilapia than simple sugars. Tilapias utilize carbohydrates as an energy source very efficiently. Vitamins requirements of tilapias which have been studied are: vitamin A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, inositol, choline and vitamin C. Available information on mineral requirements for tilapias is only for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc and copper.