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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Novel Preharvest Strategies Involving the Use of Experimental Chlorate Preparations and Nitro-Based Compounds to Prevent Colonization of Food Producing Animals by Foodborne Pathogens

Authors
item Anderson, Robin
item Harvey, Roger
item Byrd, James
item Callaway, Todd
item Genovese, Kenneth
item Edrington, Thomas
item Jung, Yong Soo
item McReynolds, Jackson
item Nisbet, David

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 26, 2004
Publication Date: April 1, 2005
Citation: Anderson, R.C., Harvey, R.B., Byrd II, J.A., Callaway, T.R., Genovese, K.J., Edrington, T.S., Jung, Y.S., McReynolds, J.L., Nisbet, D.J. 2005. Novel preharvest strategies involving the use of experimental chlorate preparations and nitro-based compounds to prevent colonization of food-producing animals by foodborne pathogens. Poultry Science. 84:649-654.

Interpretive Summary: Foodborne diseases caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter are of public health and economic significance. Shedding of these pathogens during production and slaughter are critical risks for contamination of products for human consumption. Consequently, strategies are sought to prevent or reduce these pathogens in food animals before they are processed for food. Experimental products containing chlorate salts have been proven to be effective in reducing numbers, by more than 100-fold, of E. coli and Salmonella in the gut of cattle, sheep, swine and poultry when administered as feed or water additives. Chlorate selectively targets bacteria that possess a special metabolic capability. Thus, bacteria like E. coli and Salmonella are killed but beneficial gut bacteria are unharmed. More recently, certain nitrocompounds are being investigated as potential feed additives and while these nitrocompounds significantly reduce pathogens on their own, evidence indicates that they may most effectively be used to complement the bacterial killing activity of chlorate. A particular attractive aspect of the nitrocompound technology is that it may allow producers the opportunity to recoup costs associated with its use since the nitrocompounds may improve energy utilization by the animals. At present, neither chlorate nor the nitrocompounds have been approved as feed additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and consequently, they are not yet available for commercial use.

Technical Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter are of public health and economic significance. Shedding of these pathogens during production and slaughter are critical risks for contamination of products for human consumption. Consequently, strategies are sought to prevent or reduce the carriage of these pathogens in food animals before slaughter. Experimental products containing chlorate salts have been proven efficacious in reducing concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella in the gut of cattle, sheep, swine and poultry when administered as feed or water additives. Mechanistically, chlorate selectively targets bacteria expressing respiratory nitrate reductase activity, such as most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, as this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of chlorate to lethal chlorite. Most beneficial gut bacteria lack respiratory nitrate reductase activity and thus the technology appears compatible with many bacteria exhibiting competitive exclusion capabilities. More recently, select nitrocompounds are being investigated as potential feed additives and while these nitrocompounds significantly reduce pathogens on their own, evidence indicates that they may most effectively be used to complement the bactericidal activity of chlorate. A particular attractive aspect of the nitrocompound technology is that as potent inhibitors of ruminal methanogenesis, they may allow producers the opportunity to recoup costs associated with their use. At present, neither chlorate nor the nitrocompounds have been approved as feed additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and consequently, they are not yet available for commercial use.

Last Modified: 10/22/2014
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