Submitted to: Georgia Extension Bulletin
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2004
Publication Date: May 31, 2004
Citation: Sorensen, R.B., Butts, C.L., Lamb, M.C., Rowland, D. 2004. FIVE YEARS OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION ON PEANUT. Georgia Extension Bulletin. UGA/CPES Research and Extension Bulletin No 2004. 68-72. Interpretive Summary: Subsurface drip irrigation can be used as a peanut best management practice for both short and long-term crop rotations. SDI can be used to irrigate peanut and maintain yield and grade similar to those reported for overhead irrigation systems. Longer time periods between peanut crops resulted in higher pod yields than with alternate year rotations. Peanut planted following corn in an alternate year rotation had higher pod yields than when following cotton. Continuous peanut had the lowest pod yield when compared to all other peanut rotations. There was no difference in pod yield by drip tube lateral spacing when comparing crop rotations. However, there was significant difference with drip tube lateral spacing when comparing continuous peanut with other crop rotations. There was no difference in pod yield between the 75 and 100% irrigation levels across all rotations and water levels. Peanut farmer stock grade decreased as time between peanut crops also decreased. The best pod yield and grade occurred at the 75% irrigation level with a narrow drip tube lateral spacing following a corn crop, either alternate or multiple years between peanut crops. Conversely the worst pod yield occurred at the 50% irrigation level, wide drip tube lateral spacing with continuous peanut.
Technical Abstract: Long term peanut yield with various crop rotations and irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is not known. A subsurface drip irrigation system was installed in 1998 on a Tifton loamy sand (Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) with five crop rotations, two drip tube lateral spacings, and three irrigation levels. Crop rotations ranged from continuous peanut (Arachis hypogeae L) to four years between peanut rotated with either cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.) and/or corn (Zea mays L.). Laterals were installed underneath each crop row (narrow) and alternate row middles (wide). Crops were irrigated daily at 100, 75 and 50% of estimated crop water use. Continuous peanut yields averaged 3107 kg ha-1 while peanut in rotation averaged 4031 kg ha-1. Yield of peanut in any rotation and with narrow spaced drip tube laterals averaged 4883 kg ha-1 and wide spaced laterals averaged 4592 kg ha-1. Peanut in any rotation and irrigated at 75% had the same pod yield as the 100% irrigated implying a possible 25% water savings for this agricultural region. Peanut planted in alternate year rotations following cotton and corn averaged 4302 kg ha-1 across all irrigation levels. Peanut yield following corn in the rotation and irrigated at the 75% irrigation level averaged 5018 kg ha-1. Peanut yield in longer rotations (3 to 4 years) averaged 5309 kg ha-1 across all water levels and lateral spacing. Overall, best peanut yield (average 5400 kg ha-1) was found with at least two years between peanut crops, narrow drip tube spacings, and irrigated at 75% of estimated crop water use. Lowest peanut yield (2996 kg ha-1) was shown with continuous peanut, drip tube laterals at wide spacings, and irrigated at 50% of estimated crop water use.