Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 16, 2005
Publication Date: October 20, 2005
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Stark, J., Mackey, B.E., Bull, R. 2005. Weathering trials of amulet(tm) c-l and amulet(tm) m-e attract and kill stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(5): 1551-1559. Interpretive Summary: Amulet(TM) C-L and Amulet(TM) M-E dispensers are fibrous disks used to attract and kill male fruit flies. They are impregnated with male fruit fly lures and the toxicant fipronil. Tests were conducted to see how long these disks would attract and kill fruit flies in the field, under Hawaiian weather conditions. Amulet C-L dispensers killed melon flies effectively during, and beyond the recommended replacement interval. Amulet M-E dispensers did not kill oriental fruit flies throughout the recommended replacement interval, due to breakdown of the male lure. The effectiveness of both products was increased by placing them in plastic bucket traps. This information will guide USDA and Hawaii State officials in deciding if Amulet products will be helpful for fruit population monitoring and control.
Technical Abstract: Amulet™ C-L and Amulet™ M-E molded paper fiber “attract and kill” dispensers with cue-lure or methyl eugenol and fipronil, were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, and B. dosalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, respectively. In paired tests (fresh vs. weathered), Amulet™ C-L dispensers were effective for at least 90 d, while, Amulet™ M-E dispensers were effective from 21 to 28 d. Thus, Amulet™ C-L dispensers exceeded, while Amulet™ M-E dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendations of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of methyl eugenol to 56 day-old Amulet™ M-E dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 49 d. This result suggested the fibronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering Amulet™ M-E dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of Amulet™ M-E dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Finally, Amulet™ M-E and Amulet™ C-L dispensers inside bucket traps were compared to four other bucket traps with cotton wick dispensers baited with methyl eugenol or cue-lure and spinosad, naled, DDVP or malathion. Against B. dorsalis, Amulet™ M-E dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, Amulet™ C-L dispensers compared favorably for both trials. Our results suggest that Amulet™ C-L dispensers are satisfactory for use in Hawaii, however, Amulet™ M-E dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet™ C-L and Amulet™ M-E dispensers are a novel prepackaged formulations containing methyl eugenol or cuelure and fipronil, that are more convenient and safer to handle that current liquid insecticide formulations used for area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.