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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Vector Specificity, Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Tomato Chlorosis Virus

Authors
item Wintermantel, William
item Wisler, Gail - UNIV. FLORIDA, GAINSVILLE

Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 10, 2006
Publication Date: June 1, 2006
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M., Wisler, G.C. 2006. Vector specificity, host range and genetic diversity of tomato chlorosis virus. Plant Disease. 90(6):814-819. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0814

Interpretive Summary: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus, causes interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or leaf bronzing on tomato leaves, and can lead to a decline in plant vigor and reduced fruit yield. ToCV is emerging as a serious production problem for field and greenhouse tomato growers, and has been increasing in prevalence in many parts of the world. The virus is unique among whitefly-transmitted viruses, due to its ability to be transmitted by four whitefly species from two genera. Studies demonstrated that transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies significantly among the different whitefly species. Trialeurodes abutilonea and Bemisia tabaci biotype B are highly efficient vectors of ToCV. Individual whiteflies of each species are capable of transmitting ToCV to susceptible host plants, and nearly 100% transmission can be achieved with 40 whiteflies of each. B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum are less efficient vectors, but fully capable of significant transmission. The length of time the virus is retained in the whitefly vector also varies among the vector species. ToCV is retained for up to 5 days in T. abutilonea, 2 days in B. tabaci biotype B, and only 1 day in B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum. ToCV has a moderately wide host range, infecting 24 host plant species from seven different taxonomic families, and host reactions can be used to differentiate ToCV from the related crinivirus, TICV. A portion of the coat protein coding region of five ToCV isolates was compared and found to be highly conserved among diverse isolates. This information, coupled with existing information on conservation within the HSP70h coding region suggests most ToCV isolates from throughout the world likely originated from a single source, and may have been distributed on plant material.

Technical Abstract: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus, causes interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or leaf bronzing on tomato leaves, and can lead to a decline in plant vigor and reduced fruit yield. ToCV is emerging as a serious production problem for field and greenhouse tomato growers, and has been increasing in prevalence in many parts of the world. The virus is unique among whitefly-transmitted viruses, due to its ability to be transmitted by four whitefly species from two genera. Studies demonstrated that transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies significantly among the different whitefly species. Trialeurodes abutilonea and Bemisia tabaci biotype B are highly efficient vectors of ToCV. Individual whiteflies of each species are capable of transmitting ToCV to susceptible host plants, and nearly 100% transmission can be achieved with 40 whiteflies of each. B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum are less efficient vectors, but fully capable of significant transmission. Persistence also varies among the vector species. ToCV can persist for up to 5 days in T. abutilonea, 2 days in B. tabaci biotype B, and only 1 day in B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum. ToCV has a moderately wide host range, infecting 24 host plant species from seven different families, and host reactions can be used to differentiate ToCV from the related crinivirus, TICV. A portion of the coat protein coding region of five ToCV isolates was compared and found to be highly conserved among diverse isolates. This information, coupled with existing information on conservation within the HSP70h coding region suggests most ToCV isolates from throughout the world are related very closely, and may have been distributed on plant material.

Last Modified: 10/22/2014
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