|Boykin Jr, James|
Submitted to: Transactions of the ASABE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 27, 2007
Publication Date: June 15, 2007
Citation: Boykin Jr, J.C. 2007. Cultivar Differences in Gin Stand Energy Utilization. Transactions of the ASABE. Vol. 50(3): 733-743. Interpretive Summary: For U.S. cotton to maintain a status of high quality, it is important that efforts are made to research cotton cultivars currently in production. Properties which are important in textile processing, such as fiber length, short fiber content, and lint trash, need to be maintained and improved in newly developed cultivars. Cotton fibers are damaged as they are broken from the seen at the gin. Evidence suggests that there is a great differential in fiber strength between the area close to the seed and the rest of the fiber. Fibers tend to be weaker at the seed surface, allowing for the removal of full length fibers. This occurs for most but not all fibers. Cultivars with a greater differential in fiber strength or fibers that are easier to remove from the seed should result in higher fiber quality associated with less fiber breakage. This research explored genetic variation in the detachment energy of fibers from seed as indicated by ginning energy requirements. Cotton cultivars were found to differ by 30%. This important finding shows opportunities for decreasing fiber damage by choosing varieties that consume less energy during ginning. It also indicates that there is room for considerable progress to be made in cotton breeding programs to reduce fiber damage. Implementation of this knowledge will increase the competitiveness of U.S. cotton.
Technical Abstract: This study included 38 early and 27 medium maturing cultivars planted in Stoneville, MS (2002 and 2003) and Tribbett, MS (2003). The same cultivars were included in both locations in 2003, and about 50% of the cultivars were repeated in both years. Genetic variation in gin stand energy consumption was measured as an indicator of differences in fiber seed detachment energy. After subtracting energy requirements while idling, the gin stand consumed an average of 20.2 Wh/kg lint across all cultivars with a range of 7.9 Wh/kg lint. Within each group tested, this range was typically 6.2 Wh/kg lint. Ginning energy was found to change with seed linters content, ginning rate, seed percent, turnout, and seed index, but these factors were not found to influence ginning energy. Ginning energy did not change with fiber length, but it did increase with short fiber content as fibers were broken in multiple places. Cultivars with lower fiber strength used slightly more energy during ginning, so any reduction in fiber seed detachment force was not likely related to reductions in fiber strength. Ginning energy increased with the number of neps, number of seed coat neps, and weight of seed coat fragments, and it decreased with seed cotton cleaner efficiency. This indicated that energy was used to untangle fibers and remove trash. Some properties were found to be closely related to ginning energy, but none seemed to have a large influence on ginning energy. It seems that cultivar differences in energy consumption at the gin stand are closely related to differences in the attachment force of the fiber to the seed.