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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Transformations of Soil and Manure Phosphorus after Surface Application of Manure to Field Plots

Authors
item Vadas, Peter
item Harmel, Daren
item Kleinman, Peter

Submitted to: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2006
Publication Date: January 1, 2007
Citation: Vadas, P.A., Harmel, R.D., Kleinman, P.J. 2007. Transformations of soil and manure phosphorus after surface application of manure to field plots. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 77:83-99.

Interpretive Summary: Transfer of phosphorus (P) from surface-applied manures to runoff is a source of pollution. We monitored manure and soil P over 14 to 17 months in field experiments in TX and PA following dairy and poultry manure application. Manure was applied to fabric that enabled discrete sampling of manure and soil. Manure mass consistently decreased while manure total P was fairly constant through time. Manure water extractable P decreased rapidly for the first two months, but maintained stable concentrations thereafter, with manure P gradually transformed to water extractable forms. Soil P from the upper 2 cm rapidly increased after manure application. After 2 to 3 months, soil P peaked and remained constant or gradually declined. Similar trends occurred at 2-5 and 5-10 cm, but soil P changed little over time at 10-15 cm. In PA, runoff from plots with and without manure was also monitored. Runoff dissolved P concentrations were greatest for the first event after manure application and decreased steadily through time, but remained greater than P concentrations from control plots, and were always well related to manure water extractable P. This study reveals that management practices for water quality protection must consider the potential for manure P transformations to contribute dissolved P to runoff long after manure is applied.

Technical Abstract: Transfer of phosphorus (P) from surface-applied manures to runoff is an important source of pollution, but few studies have closely monitored P dynamics in manure, soil, and runoff through time. We monitored manure and soil P over 14 to 17 months in field experiments in TX and PA following dairy and poultry manure surface application. Manure was applied to porous fabric that enabled discrete sampling of both manure and underlying soil. Manure mass consistently decreased while manure total P was fairly constant through time. Manure water extractable P decreased rapidly for the first two months, likely due to rainfall leaching, but then maintained stable concentrations thereafter, with other forms of manure P gradually transformed to water extractable form. Soil P from the upper 2 cm rapidly increased after manure application in association with manure leaching by rain. After 2 to 3 months, soil P peaked and either remained constant or gradually declined. Similar trends occurred at 2-5 and 5-10 cm, but with lesser magnitudes. At 10-15 cm, soil P changed little over time. In Pennsylvania, naturally occurring runoff from 0.7 by 1.3-m plots without and without manure was also monitored. Runoff dissolved P concentrations were greatest for the first event after manure application and decreased steadily through time, but remained greater than P concentrations from control plots, and were always well related to manure water extractable P. This study reveals that management practices for water quality protection must consider the potential for manure P transformations to contribute dissolved P to runoff long after manure is applied.

Last Modified: 4/17/2014
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