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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DETECTION, CONTROL AND AREA-WIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES Title: Use of Alpha-Ionol + Cade Oil for Detection and Monitoring of Bactrocera Latifrons Populations

Authors
item McQuate, Grant
item Bokonon-Ganta, Aime - PEPS, UNIV OF HAWAII-MANO
item Jang, Eric

Submitted to: Fruit Flies of Economic Importance International Symposium
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 31, 2006
Publication Date: September 13, 2006
Citation: Mcquate, G.T., Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., Jang, E.B. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of bactrocera latifrons populations. Fruit Flies of Economic Importance International Symposium.

Interpretive Summary: Alpha-ionol, with the addition of cade oil, is the established male lure for Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Cade oil contains over 200 different compounds, a number of which (= active ingredients) help to synergize the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons. Eugenol is one of the active ingredients in cade oil. In order to better understand the efficacy of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of B. latifrons populations, we determined (1) The age of lure response of males; (2) The field performance of treated wicks; (3) Its effectiveness in detecting B. latifrons populations at sites where B. latifrons was recovered in fruit collections; and (4) Male B. latifrons response to eugenol relative to methyl eugenol. (1) Age of Response. Wild flies were used in wind tunnel bioassays to assess the age of response of adult male B. latifrons to alpha-ionol + cade oil. B. latifrons male response gradually increased with age, with 75% of peak response at age 10 and 94% of peak response at age 18. This data indicates what portion of the field population is being assessed through trap captures. (2) Wick Performance. Laboratory-reared flies were used to assess the field performance of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil. Treated wicks were aged in Jackson traps in a nonhost orchard in Hilo, Hawaii, for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks and then set out in a randomized complete block design. Sexually mature adults were released, with traps recovered after 24 hours. Trap catch declined steadily over the 14 weeks of aging, declining to 50% of the fresh wick catch after 6½ weeks. This data helps to identify the timing for replacing/recharging the lure. Standardly, attractants are replaced when their catch drops below 50% of their catch when fresh. (3) Effectiveness in Detecting B. latifrons Populations. Every two weeks, over the course of 1½ years, Jackson traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil were serviced at 13 sites with well developed turkeyberry (Solanum torvum L.) patches in the vicinity of Haiku, Maui. Concurrent to trap servicing, fruits were collected, as available, from each patch for the assessment of the level of infestation. 76.6% of the times B. latifrons was recovered from fruits collected in a given patch, B. latifrons was also detected through trap catches in that patch. Trap detection improved to 86.5% by including the results of the next trap servicing 2 weeks later. Lack of detection may have occurred for young populations, where immature males would exhibit a low rate of lure response, or where flies occupied only a small portion of a large patch. (4) Relation to Tephritid Male Lures. Male B. latifrons were equally attracted to eugenol, methyl eugenol, and cade oil when each was presented alone. Synergistic enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol, however, only occurred with the addition of eugenol or cade oil, but not with the addition of methyl eugenol. The response of B. latifrons males to eugenol helps to better place B. latifrons in the overall Dacine male lure response pattern because eugenol is considered to be a precursor in the evolutionary development of methyl eugenol as a Dacine male attractant.

Technical Abstract: Alpha-ionol, with the addition of cade oil, is the established male lure for Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Cade oil contains over 200 different compounds, a number of which (= active ingredients) help to synergize the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons. Eugenol is one of the active ingredients in cade oil. In order to better understand the efficacy of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of B. latifrons populations, we determined (1) The age of lure response of males; (2) The field performance of treated wicks; (3) Its effectiveness in detecting B. latifrons populations at sites where B. latifrons was recovered in fruit collections; and (4) Male B. latifrons response to eugenol relative to methyl eugenol. (1) Age of Response. Wild flies were used in wind tunnel bioassays to assess the age of response of adult male B. latifrons to alpha-ionol + cade oil. B. latifrons male response gradually increased with age, with 75% of peak response at age 10 and 94% of peak response at age 18. (2) Wick Performance. Laboratory-reared flies were used to assess the field performance of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil. Treated wicks were aged in Jackson traps in a nonhost orchard in Hilo, Hawaii, for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks and then set out in a randomized complete block design. Sexually mature adults were released, with traps recovered after 24 hours. Trap catch declined steadily over the 14 weeks of aging, declining to 50% of the fresh wick catch after 6½ weeks. (3) Effectiveness in Detecting B. latifrons Populations. Every two weeks, over the course of 1½ years, Jackson traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil were serviced at 13 sites with well developed turkeyberry (Solanum torvum L.) patches in the vicinity of Haiku, Maui. Concurrent to trap servicing, fruits were collected, as available, from each patch for the assessment of the level of infestation. 76.6% of the times B. latifrons was recovered from fruits collected in a given patch, B. latifrons was also detected through trap catches in that patch. Trap detection improved to 86.5% by including the results of the next trap servicing 2 weeks later. Lack of detection may have occurred for young populations, where immature males would exhibit a low rate of lure response, or where flies occupied only a small portion of a large patch. (4) Relation to Tephritid Male Lures. Male B. latifrons were equally attracted to eugenol, methyl eugenol, and cade oil when each was presented alone. Synergistic enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol, however, only occurred with the addition of eugenol or cade oil, but not with the addition of methyl eugenol. The response of B. latifrons males to eugenol helps to better place B. latifrons in the overall Dacine male lure response pattern because eugenol is considered to be a precursor in the evolutionary development of methyl eugenol as a Dacine male attractant.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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