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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Efficacy of MIDAS™ for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Celosia in Florida

Authors
item Burelle, Nancy
item Rosskopf, Erin
item Driggers, Randall
item Kreger, Robert - ARYSTA LIFE SCIENCES
item Holzinger, John - HOLZINGER FLOWERS INC.

Submitted to: Proceedings of Methyl Bromide Alternatives Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2006
Publication Date: November 6, 2006
Citation: Burelle, N.K., Rosskopf, E.N., Driggers, R.E., Kreger, R., Holzinger, J. 2006. Efficacy of MIDAS™ for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Celosia in Florida. Proceedings of Methyl Bromide Alternatives Conference. 112:1-2.

Interpretive Summary: A large number of floriculture crops in Florida are dependent upon the use of methyl bromide soil fumigation for control of a wide variety of pests. These include nematodes, weeds, and soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This industry is currently able to continue using methyl bromide for soil fumigation through the critical use nomination process, but alternatives to methyl bromide must be tested for this industry. A field trial was conducted in Martin County, Florida to determine the efficacy of methyl iodide, formulated at the commercial product Midas, consisting of a 50:50 mixture of methyl iodide and chloropicrin, for production of the cut flower, ornamental cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata). Midas is currently undergoing registration evaluation with the US Environmental Protection Agency. Treatments in this trial included methy bromide:chloropicrin (98:2 formulation at 224 kg/ha), Midas (224 kg/ha), and an untreated check. All treatments were covered with metalized film. The impacts of the treatments on nematodes isolated from soil and roots, and cockscomb root growth were monitored. Nematode populations before fumigation were evenly distributed among the plots, with the exception of a slight decrease in other stylet-bearing nematodes among Midas plots. Following treatment Midas reduced populations of all nematodes in the soil compared to the untreated control. Although nematode populations in methyl bromide treated plots were approximately ½ of those in the control plots, differences were not statistically significant due to variability among methyl bromide treated plots. Nematode populations 40 DAP rebounded and were evenly distributed among all treatments. At 90 DAP nematode populations were equivalent to, or higher than the control in both methyl Midas and methyl bromide. However, both Midas and methyl bromide reduced the number of root-knot nematodes isolated from roots, and reduced galling by root-knot nematodes compared to the untreated control. The total number of all types of nematodes isolated from roots was lowest in the Midas treatment. Plant root weights were also higher in Midas and methyl bromide treated plots compared to the untreated plots, with Midas having higher root weights than methyl bromide. This study emphasizes the importance of early season nematode control for reduction of galling on Celosia. Although the application of Midas™ required equipment modification that is still being improved, the material provided adequate nematode control and produced cockscomb yields that were comparable to methyl bromide.

Technical Abstract: The efficacy of iodomethane:chloropicrin (50:50 Midas™, Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) was evaluated for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) on Celosia argentea var. cristata. A field trial was conducted on a commercial farm in southeastern Florida in 2006. Midas applied at 224 kg/ha was compared to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (98:2) applied at 224 kg/ha, and an untreated control. All plots were covered with metalized mulch (Canslit, Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada) immediately after fumigation. Beds were 30 m long with each treatment replicated four times and plots arranged in a randomized complete block design. Mulch was removed 15 days after fumigation, five days before planting. Celosia seed were planted directly into soil. Nematodes were evaluated in plots immediately before fumigation, at planting, 40 days after planting (DAP), and 90 DAP. At 97 DAP plants were destructively sampled, roots were evaluated for galling, and nematodes were extracted from roots using the Baermann funnel technique. Nematodes were identified as Meloidogyne spp., other stylet-bearing nematodes, or microbivorous nematodes. Nematode populations before fumigation were evenly distributed among the plots, with the exception of a slight decrease in other stylet-bearing nematodes among Midas plots. Following treatment Midas reduced populations of all nematodes in the soil compared to the untreated control. Although nematode populations in methyl bromide treated plots were approximately ½ of those in the control plots, differences were not statistically significant due to variability among methyl bromide treated plots. Nematode populations 40 DAP rebounded and were evenly distributed among all treatments. At 90 DAP nematode populations were equivalent to, or higher than the control in both methyl Midas and methyl bromide. However, both Midas and methyl bromide reduced the number of root-knot nematodes isolated from roots, and reduced galling by root-knot nematodes compared to the untreated control. The total number of all types of nematodes isolated from roots was lowest in the Midas treatment. Plant root weights were also higher in Midas and methyl bromide treated plots compared to the untreated plots, with Midas having higher root weights than methyl bromide. The increased efficacy and consistency of Midas compared to methyl bromide for reducing populations of nematodes in soil early in the season is somewhat unexpected due to the lower vapor pressure and reduced movement of Midas through soil. This study emphasizes the importance of early season nematode control for reduction of galling on Celosia.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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