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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MOLECULAR AND GENETIC APPROACHES TO SUPPRESSING FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION

Location: Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention

Title: Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

Authors
item LIGHT, DOUGLAS
item KNIGHT, ALAN

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 30, 2011
Publication Date: August 15, 2011
Citation: Light, D.M., Knight, A.L. 2011. Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 104(4):1309-1315.

Interpretive Summary: The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester [ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate] (PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroid, insect growth regulator and a viral microbial insecticide, were evaluated by spraying replicate single trees. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs of two growers, including sprays of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides at full rates were evaluated in replicated 5 acre blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with the insect growth regulator for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of insect pest management tactics with reduced insecticide usage in walnut.

Technical Abstract: The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 grams per hectare) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated 2 hectare blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of IPM tactics with reduced insecticide usage in walnut.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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