Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 14, 2007
Publication Date: November 5, 2007
Citation: Moser, B.R., Erhan, S.Z. 2007. Synthesis and Evaluation of Alpha-Hydroxy Ethers as Potential Biodiesel Additives [abstract]. International Congress on Biodiesel. p. 49.
Several novel alpha-hydroxy ethers were synthesized by treatment of alkyl 9,10-epoxystearates with a number of alcohols in the presence of acid catalyst in good yield from oleic acid. The low temperature behavior of each material was analyzed through cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) determination. Four of the best candidates, alpha-hydroxy ethers 1-4, as determined by CP, PP, and synthetic requirements, were evaluated against a number of additional biodiesel fuel parameters and compared to soybean methyl esters (SME), which include oxidation stability, kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, lubricity, and surface tension. Ethers 1-4 exhibited superior CP, PP, and oxidation stability when compared to SME. However, at low blend levels (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% by wt) in SME the materials had minimal impact on CP and PP. Specific gravity and surface tension of 1-4 compared favorably to SME. Ethers 1-4 displayed increased kinematic viscosity when compared to SME, but were still within ASTM D6751 specifications at blend levels in SME. Conversely, ethers 3 and 4 at 2.0% in SME were out of specification for kinematic viscosity in EN 14214. Both SME and 1-4 exhibited lubricity wear scar data well within prescribed ASTM and EU petrodiesel specifications.