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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Technical Aspects of Use of Ultrasound for Intensification of Enzymatic Bio-Processing: New Path to "Green Chemistry"

Authors
item Yachmenev, Valeriy
item Condon, Brian
item Lambert, Allan

Submitted to: Trade Journal Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 2, 2007
Publication Date: September 7, 2007
Citation: Yachmenev, V., Condon, B.D., Lambert, A.H. 2007. Technical Aspects of Use of Ultrasound for Intensification of Enzymatic Bio-Processing: New Path to "Green Chemistry". International Congress on Acoustic. 38(3-4):1-6.

Interpretive Summary: Use of enzymatic processing in the food, textile, and bio-fuel applications is becoming increasingly popular, primarily because of rapid introduction of a new variety of highly efficient enzymes. In general, an enzymatic bio-processing generates less toxic and readily biodegradable wastewater effluents. The ever-increasing legislative pressures by governments worldwide to reduce the quantity/toxicity of industrial wastewaters will ensure even greater acceptance of enzymatic bio-processing in the future. However, enzymatic bio-processing has several critical shortcomings that impede its wide acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research found that the introduction of a low energy, uniform ultrasound field into various enzyme processing solutions greatly improved their effectiveness by significantly increasing their reaction rate. It has been established that the following specific features of combined enzyme/ultrasound bio-processing are critically important: a) the effect of cavitation is several hundred times greater in heterogeneous systems (solid-liquid) than in homogeneous, b) in water, maximum effects of cavitation occur at ~50 0C, which is the optimum temperature for many enzymes, c) cavitation effects caused by ultrasound greatly enhance the transport of enzyme macromolecules toward substrate surface and, d) mechanical impacts, produced by collapse of cavitation bubbles, provide an important benefit of “opening up” the surface of substrates to the action of enzymes. On the whole, this research demonstrated that under specific conditions, carefully controlled introduction of ultrasound energy during enzymatic bio-processing has a very good potential for intensification of variety of technological processes that involve many types of industrial enzymes and matching substrates. Groups benefiting from this development include the textile, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and many others industries.

Technical Abstract: Use of enzymatic processing in the food, textile, and bio-fuel applications is becoming increasingly popular, primarily because of rapid introduction of a new variety of highly efficient enzymes. In general, an enzymatic bio-processing generates less toxic and readily biodegradable wastewater effluents. The ever-increasing legislative pressures by governments worldwide to reduce the quantity/toxicity of industrial wastewaters will ensure even greater acceptance of enzymatic bio-processing in the future. However, enzymatic bio-processing has several critical shortcomings that impede its wide acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research found that the introduction of a low energy, uniform ultrasound field into various enzyme processing solutions greatly improved their effectiveness by significantly increasing their reaction rate. It has been established that the following specific features of combined enzyme/ultrasound bio-processing are critically important: a) the effect of cavitation is several hundred times greater in heterogeneous systems (solid-liquid) than in homogeneous, b) in water, maximum effects of cavitation occur at ~50 0C, which is the optimum temperature for many enzymes, c) cavitation effects caused by ultrasound greatly enhance the transport of enzyme macromolecules toward substrate surface and, d) mechanical impacts, produced by collapse of cavitation bubbles, provide an important benefit of “opening up” the surface of substrates to the action of enzymes.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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