Title: Challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor. Authors
Submitted to: United States Japan Natural Resources Protein Panel
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: August 20, 2007
Publication Date: October 1, 2007
Citation: Champagne, E.T., Bett Garber, K.L. 2007. Challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor. United States Japan Natural Resources Protein Panel. 217-222. Interpretive Summary: Rice is an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population. Unlike most food crops, rice is generally eaten whole without seasoning making the sensory properties of the rice grain itself important. Aroma is rated as the highest desired trait followed by flavor. The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are affected by genetic, pre-harvest (e.g. environment, cultural methods), and post-harvest (e.g. drying, milling, storage, cooking method) factors. Numerous studies using instrumental and human sensory approaches have been conducted to understand the effects of these factors with mixed success. This paper focuses on the challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor and using these measures to understand what effects these sensory properties in cooked rice.
Technical Abstract: There has been a quest for over thirty years to understand how genetic, pre-harvest (e.g. environment, cultural methods) and post-harvest (e.g. drying, milling, storage, cooking method) factors affect the aroma and flavor of cooked rice and to relate these effects to the numerous volatile compounds in rice. The desired outcome is to identify important marker compounds that will allow pre-harvest and post-harvest strategies to be enacted to assure that cooked rice will have desired aroma and flavor. Most researchers have taken the approach of correlating changes in volatile compounds with pre- and post-harvest variables and have drawn conclusions as to which compounds possibly impact aroma and flavor based on concentration or aroma value (AV). Few have conducted preference or descriptive sensory analyses with concurrent volatile analyses. The result is that, with the exception of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn aroma), no marker compounds have been identified to allow monitoring and control of pre- and post-harvest factors on aroma and flavor. This paper will focus on the challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor and using these measures to understand what effects these sensory properties in cooked rice.