Location: Food and Feed Safety Research
Title: Registration of Six Tropical Maize Germplasm Lines with Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination Authors
Submitted to: Journal of Plant Registrations
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 23, 2008
Publication Date: September 10, 2008
Citation: Menkir, A., Brown, R.L., Bandyopadhyay, R., Cleveland, T.E. 2008. Registration of Six Tropical Maize Germplasm Lines with Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination. Journal of Plant Registrations. 2:246-250 Interpretive Summary: The fungus named Aspergillus flavus produces a poison called aflatoxin when it infects corn kernels. Aflatoxin prevents the corn from being used commercially, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars. The best strategy for controlling this problem is to develop corn that is resistant to aflatoxin contamination. We initiated a corn breeding program by combining the best aflatoxin-resistant lines in the U.S. with resistant lines found in Central and West Africa. From these crosses, inbred lines (where traits are fixed) were developed in both tropical and temperate backgrounds. Eight of these lines have demonstrated good resistance against aflatoxin accumulation in lab and field tests and have also been shown to possess other commercially-desirable corn traits. These eight are being registered and released to the public as sources of aflatoxin resistance traits. They could then be used in commercial breeding programs to develop aflatoxin-resistant corn lines for use by growers. This could lead to future savings of millions of dollars to growers, as a result of the elimination of aflatoxin contamination of corn.
Technical Abstract: The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has developed maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines (Reg. no. GP- 000 through GP-000 and PI 000 000 through PI 000 000) with resistance to aflatoxin contamination adapted to the lowlands . Ear rot causing fungi including Aspergillus are common in maize in West and Central Africa. A. flavus can contaminate the grain with aflatoxins that pose a serious potential health hazard to humans in this part of Africa. IITA has a collaborative breeding project with the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) of the USDA-ARS located in New Orleans to develop maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The eight inbred lines selected for resistance to aflatoxin contamination were developed though this collaborative project. Most of these lines also have good levels of resistance to Southern corn leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado & Miyake) Shoemaker) and southern corn rust (Puccinia polysora Underw). These lines are presently at the S8 to S10 stages of inbreeding.