Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: VACCINOLOGY AND IMMUNITY OF AQUATIC ANIMALS

Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research

Title: Immunostimulation, vaccine and phage therapy strategies in aquaculture

Authors
item Klesius, Phillip
item EVANS, JOYCE
item SHOEMAKER, CRAIG

Submitted to: Popular Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 19, 2007
Publication Date: November 30, 2007
Citation: Klesius, P.H., Evans, J.J., Shoemaker, C.A. 2007. Immunostimulation, vaccine and phage therapy strategies in aquaculture. In: Aquaculture Health International, Issue 11: 36-38.

Interpretive Summary: This invited article provides a comparison between fish and shrimp immunity, and reviews the use of immunostimulation, vaccination strategies and bacteriophage therapies. Immunostimulants, a heterogenous group of compounds that are derived from bacterial, plant and animal extracts are compounds believed to be capable of producing or aiding in the stimulation of immune responses. However, properly designed field trials and data analysis are often inadequate regarding the numbers of fish, treated replicates, untreated controls and known cause of mortality to be accurately interpreted. The risk/economic benefit factors are often unknown. Furthermore, does an immuostimulant provide long lasting protection in both juveniles and adult fish? More research is needed to demonstrate immunstimulant protection and economic benefit to fish farmer to completely accept their role in promoting fish health. Vaccination strategies increase survival as well as providing additional profits to the fish farmer by increased growth of healthy fish. Vaccinology is a valid, environmentally sound approach to producing specific immune responses that can be effective in the prevention of diseases in farmed fish. The use of safer alterative strategies such as vaccines and phage treatments represent progress towards solving, health issues and environmental problems cause by the use of antibiotics in aquaculture.

Technical Abstract: This invited article provides a comparison between fish and shrimp immunity, and reviews the use of immunostimulation, vaccination strategies and bacteriophage therapies. Immunostimulants, a heterogenous group of compounds that are derived from bacterial, plant and animal extracts are compounds believed to be capable of producing or aiding in the stimulation of immune responses. However, properly designed field trials and data analysis are often inadequate regarding the numbers of fish, treated replicates, untreated controls and known cause of mortality to be accurately interpreted. The risk/economic benefit factors are often unknown. Furthermore, does an immuostimulant provide long lasting protection in both juveniles and adult fish? More research is needed to demonstrate immunstimulant protection and economic benefit to fish farmer to completely accept their role in promoting fish health. Vaccination strategies increase survival as well as providing additional profits to the fish farmer by increased growth of healthy fish. Vaccinology is a valid, environmentally sound approach to producing specific immune responses that can be effective in the prevention of diseases in farmed fish. The use of safer alterative strategies such as vaccines and phage treatments represent progress towards solving, health issues and environmental problems cause by the use of antibiotics in aquaculture.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page