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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: PRR3 Is a Vascular Regulator of TOC1 Stability in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock

Authors
item Para, Alessia - SCRIPPS, LA JOLLA CA
item Farre, Eva - SCRIPPS, LA JOLLA CA
item Imaizumi, Takato - SCRIPPS, LA JOLLA CA
item Pruneda-Paz, Jose L. - SCRIPPS, LA JOLLA CA
item Harmon, Frank
item Kay, Steve - SCRIPPS, LA JOLLA CA

Submitted to: The Plant Cell
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 2, 2007
Publication Date: November 30, 2007
Repository URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/rapidpdf/tpc.107.054775v1
Citation: Para, A., Farre, E.M., Imaizumi, T., Pruneda-Paz, J., Harmon, F.G., Kay, S.A. 2007. PRR3 Is a Vascular Regulator of TOC1 Stability in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock. The Plant Cell. Published on November 30, 2007; 10.1105/tpc.107.054775.

Interpretive Summary: The circadian clock is the endogenous biological timer that produces 24 hour rhythmic behavior in many aspects of plant physiology. The rhythms produced by the clock are critical to optimize plant responses to daily and seasonal environmental changes. Circadian rhythms are also pervasive within plants, as rhythms are apparent in most tissues in the plant. The pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) participate in the progression of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. The founding member of this protein family, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), is an essential component of the transcriptional network that constitutes the core mechanism of the circadian oscillator. Recent data suggest a role in circadian regulation for all five members of the PRR family; however, the molecular function of TOC1 or any other PRRs remains unknown. In this work, we present evidence for the involvement of PRR3 in the regulation of TOC1 protein stability. PRR3 was temporally coexpressed with TOC1 under different light:dark conditions, but PRR3 and TOC1 only shared overlapping expression in the vasculature. Decreased expression of PRR3 resulted in reduced levels of TOC1 protein, while overexpression of PRR3 caused an increase in the levels of TOC1, all without affecting the amount of TOC1 transcript. PRR3 was able to bind to TOC1 in yeast and in plants and to perturb TOC1 interaction with ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which targets TOC1 for proteasome-dependent degradation. Together, our results indicate that PRR3 might function to modulate TOC1 stability by hindering ZTL-dependent TOC1 degradation. This work demonstrates that PRR3 is a tissue-specific regulator of TOC1 activity. This is the first direct demonstration of a tissue-specific activity for a circadian clock protein. In addition, this work illustrates emerging theme in the plant circadian clock, which is the use of protein-protein interactions to regulate the stability and, therefore, the activity of key regulatory proteins.

Technical Abstract: The pseudoresponse regulators (PRRs) participate in the progression of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. The founding member of the family, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), is an essential component of the transcriptional network that constitutes the core mechanism of the circadian oscillator. Recent data suggest a role in circadian regulation for all five members of the PRR family; however, the molecular function of TOC1 or any other PRRs remains unknown. In this work, we present evidence for the involvement of PRR3 in the regulation of TOC1 protein stability. PRR3 was temporally coexpressed with TOC1 under different photoperiods, yet its tissue expression was only partially overlapping with that of TOC1, as PRR3 appeared restricted to the vasculature. Decreased expression of PRR3 resulted in reduced levels of TOC1 protein, while overexpression of PRR3 caused an increase in the levels of TOC1, all without affecting the amount of TOC1 transcript. PRR3 was able to bind to TOC1 in yeast and in plants and to perturb TOC1 interaction with ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which targets TOC1 for proteasome-dependent degradation. Together, our results indicate that PRR3 might function to modulate TOC1 stability by hindering ZTL-dependent TOC1 degradation, suggesting the existence of local regulators of clock activity and adding to the growing importance of post-translational regulation in the design of circadian timing mechanisms in plants.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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