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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry.

Authors
item Lewis, Gregory
item Taylor, Joshua
item Goetsch, Arthur - LANGSTON UNIVERSITY
item Thonney, Micheal - CORNELL UNIVERSITY
item Gavin, William - GTC BIOTHERAMPEUTICS
item Kuber, Paul - THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 2, 2008
Publication Date: April 1, 2010
Repository URL: http://www.fass.org/page.asp?pageID=216
Citation: Lewis, G.S., Gavin, W.G., Goetsch, A.L., Taylor, J.B.,and Thonney, M.L. 2010. Chapter 10: Sheep and Goats, in Guide for Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. 3rd ed. Federation of Animal Science Society, Savoy, IL. p. 129-142.

Interpretive Summary: Agricultural scientists use animals in research or teaching to develop methods and disseminate data to enhance the well-being of agricultural animals and humans, and to ensure the sustainability of a plentiful, safe supply of food and fiber. In addition, agricultural scientists recognize the scientific and ethical importance of proper animal care and humane treatment of animals. The scientific community fully supports the use of methods for ensuring that animals receive appropriate care and adherence to standards ensuring that animals are treated humanely. Indeed, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) are mandatory, and IACUC must approve animal research, and many teaching, protocols. Also, the Animal Welfare Act (CFR, 1992) regulates the use of agricultural animals for certain research, teaching, and testing activities, and the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) oversees facilities and programs related to the use of agricultural animals in agricultural research and teaching. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Directive 635.1, Humane Animal Care and Use, addresses the use of agricultural animals in agricultural research at Agricultural Research Service facilities. IACUC in the United States and many other countries rely on the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Guide) for direction in developing and approving animal care and use protocols. The Guide is often considered the standard for reference when protocols are developed for using agricultural animals in agricultural research or teaching. Chapter 9, Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry, of the Guide is specific for sheep and goats and will be used throughout the United States and many other countries for ensuring the proper care and humane treatment of sheep and goats in agricultural research or teaching.

Technical Abstract: The Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Guide) is considered the standard for reference when protocols are developed for using agricultural animals in agricultural research or teaching. The Animal Welfare Act (CFR, 1992) regulates the use of agricultural animals for certain research, teaching, and testing activities, and the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) oversees facilities and programs related to the use of agricultural animals in agricultural research and teaching. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Directive 635.1, Humane Animal Care and Use, addresses the use of agricultural animals in agricultural research at Agricultural Research Service facilities. In the United States and many other countries, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) are mandatory. In the United States, IACUC ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Directive 635.1, and IACUC must approve animal research, and many teaching, protocols. The Guide contains information about most agricultural animals. Chapter 9, Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry, of the Guide is specific for sheep and goats and will be used throughout the United States and many other countries for ensuring the proper care and humane treatment of sheep and goats in agricultural research or teaching. The authors of Chapter 9 of the Guide emphasize that domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) are small ruminants, and, as such, their general care and management are often quite similar. However, because they are a different genus and species, their behaviors, foraging practices, diet selections, uses, and a number of physiological characteristics can be quite different. Thus, facility design and husbandry must be consistent with the behaviors, nutrient requirements, use, and physiology of each species. For optimal results, the people who care for these animals should be well-trained, have documented and appropriate educational degrees, certifications, and(or) relevant experience, understand the requirements of the species they are caring for, and have good observational and communications skills. Chapter 9 contains the following sections: Intensive Laboratory Environments; Fencing; Lighting; Feed; Water; Social Environment; General Husbandry; Internal and External Parasite Control; Shearing; Tail-Docking; Castration; Dehorning; Handling and Transportation; Euthanasia; Dairy Sheep and Goats; Emergency Plans; Zoonotic Diseases; Lairage and Harvest; Predator Control; Biosecurity; and Transgenics and Cloning. The authors supported their guidelines and recommendations with 80 references. Chapter 9, Guidelines for Sheep and Goat Husbandry, of the Guide contains insightful and practical suggestions for ensuring the proper care and humane treatment of agricultural animals used in agricultural research or teaching.

Last Modified: 11/27/2014
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