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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF COTTON TEXTILES Title: Application of a low level, uniform ultrasound field for the acceleration of enzymatic bio-processing of cotton

Authors
item Condon, Brian
item Easson, Michael
item Yachmenev, Valeriy
item Lambert, Allan
item Delhom, Christopher
item Smith, Jade

Submitted to: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 16, 2009
Publication Date: October 20, 2009
Citation: Condon, B.D., Easson, M.W., Yachmenev, V., Lambert, A.H., Delhom, C.D., Smith, J.N. 2009. Application of Low Level, Uniform Ultrasound Field for Acceleration of Enzymatic Bio-processing of Cotton. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology. 43(9-10):443-453.

Interpretive Summary: Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that the introduction of a low energy, uniform ultrasound field into enzyme processing solutions greatly improved enzymes effectiveness by significantly increasing their reaction rate. It has been established that the following specific features of combined enzyme/ultrasound bio-processing of cotton are critically important: a) cavitation effects caused by introduction of ultrasound field into the enzyme processing solution greatly enhance the transport of enzyme macromolecules toward the substrate’s surface, and b) mechanical impacts, produced by the collapse of cavitation bubbles, provide an important benefit of “opening up” the surface of solid substrates to the action of enzymes. On a laboratory scale, introduction of ultrasonic energy in the reaction chamber during enzymatic bio-preparation of greige cotton fabrics and enzymatic bio-conversion of cotton gin and cotton lint waste biomass into sugars resulted in a significant improvement in enzymes efficiency. On the whole, this research demonstrated that under specific conditions, carefully controlled introduction of ultrasound energy during enzymatic bio-processing has a very good potential for intensification of variety of technological processes that involve many types of industrial enzymes and matching substrates. Groups benefiting from this development include the textile, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and many others industries.

Technical Abstract: Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that the introduction of a low energy, uniform ultrasound field into enzyme processing solutions greatly improved enzymes effectiveness by significantly increasing their reaction rate. It has been established that the following specific features of combined enzyme/ultrasound bio-processing of cotton are critically important: a) cavitation effects caused by introduction of ultrasound field into the enzyme processing solution greatly enhance the transport of enzyme macromolecules toward the substrate’s surface, b) mechanical impacts, produced by the collapse of cavitation bubbles, provide an important benefit of “opening up” the surface of solid substrates to the action of enzymes, c) the effect of cavitation is several hundred times greater in heterogeneous systems (solid substrate-liquid) than in homogeneous, and d) in water, the maximum effects of cavitation occur at ~50 C, which is the optimum temperature for many enzymes. On a laboratory scale, introduction of ultrasonic energy in the reaction chamber during enzymatic bio-preparation of greige cotton fabrics and enzymatic bio-conversion of cotton gin and cotton lint waste biomass into sugars resulted in a significant improvement in enzymes efficiency.

Last Modified: 10/23/2014
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