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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MYCOTOXINS AND PLANT TOXINS IN FOODS Title: Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

Authors
item Voss, Kenneth
item Jackson, Lauren -
item Jablonski, Joseph -
item Hanna, Milford -
item Bullerman, Lloyd -
item Ryu, Dojin -

Submitted to: Toxicological Sciences
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 7, 2010
Publication Date: March 7, 2010
Citation: Voss, K.A., Jackson, L.S., Jablonski, J.E., Hanna, M.A., Bullerman, L.B., Ryu, D. 2010. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits. Toxicological Sciences 114 (Supplement The Toxicologist). p. 247.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required

Technical Abstract: Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more efficient twin-screw configuration, batches of Fusarium verticilliodes-fermented corn grits (Batch-1 = 9.7 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1); Batch-2 = 50 ppm FB1, determined by HPLC) were extruded (Batch 1E; Batch 2E) or extruded with 10% w/w glucose supplementation (Batch-1EG; Batch-2EG). FB1 concentrations of the cooked batches were: Batch-1E = 2.7; Batch-1EG = 0.6; Batch-2E = 18; and Batch-2EG = 5.7 ppm. These values correspond to FB1 reductions of 72%, 94%, 64% and 89%, respectively. The above batches and uncooked (control) or extruded (extrusion control) uncontaminated (<0.2 ppm FB1) grits were mixed (1:1) with basal chow and fed to male rats for 3 (n=5/group) or 8 (n=5/group) weeks. Differences in general appearance, body weights or hematology and serum chemistry profiles were not found. Evidence of toxicity was limited to the kidneys. Relative kidney weights were decreased in rats fed Batch-1 or Batch-2 and apoptotic lesions typically caused by fumonisins were found in the Batch1, Batch-1E, Batch-2, Batch-2E, and Batch-2EG groups. They were most severe in those groups fed diets having the highest FB1 concentrations: that is, Batch-1 (4.9 ppm), Batch-2 (25 ppm) and Batch-2E (9.0 ppm). Minimal to mild lesions were found in groups fed Batch-1E (1.4 ppm) or Batch-2EG (2.9 ppm) whereas kidneys from rats fed Batch-1EG (0.3 ppm) were unremarkable upon microscopic examination. Together, the findings indicate that extrusion with glucose using a twin-screw configuration reduces the concentrations and toxicity of FB1 in contaminated corn grits.

Last Modified: 10/23/2014
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