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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MYCOTOXINS AND PLANT TOXINS IN FOODS

Location: Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research

Title: Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation reduced fumonisin concentrations and toxicity

Authors
item Voss, Kenneth
item Jackson, Lauren -
item Jablonski, Joseph -
item Bianchini, Andreia -
item Hanna, Mifford -
item Bullerman, Lloyd -
item Ryu, Dojin -

Submitted to: Meeting, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 2, 2010
Publication Date: March 2, 2010
Citation: Voss, K.A., Jackson, L.S., Jablonski, J.E., Bianchini, A., Hanna, M.A., Bullerman, L., Ryu, D. 2010. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation reduced fumonisin concentrations and toxicity [abstract]. Meeting, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia. p. 3.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required

Technical Abstract: Extrusion cooking involves forcing material through a heated barrel under high pressure using one (single-screw configuration) or two (twin-screw configuration) augers. We previously demonstrated (Bullerman et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:2400-2405, 2008; Voss et al., Journal of Food Protection 71:2036-2041, 2008) that single screw extrusion reduced fumonisin concentrations in three batches of contaminated corn grits, that in each case the reductions were increased by adding 10% w/w glucose to the grits prior to cooking, and that the toxic potential of one batch extruded with glucose supplementation was significantly reduced. In this study, the efficacy of the twin-screw configuration for reducing fumonisins was evaluated. Two batches of Fusarium verticillioides-fermented corn grits (Batch-1 contained 9.7 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1); Batch-2 contained 50 ppm FB1 as determined by HPLC-fluorescence) were extruded without (Batch-1E; Batch-2E) or with 10% w/w glucose supplementation (Batch-1EG; Batch-2EG) using a twin-screw apparatus. FB1 concentrations of the extruded grits were: Batch-1E = 2.7 ppm; Batch-1EG = 0.6 ppm; Batch-2E = 18 ppm; and Batch-2EG = 5.7 ppm. These values corresponded to reductions of 72% (Batch-1E), 94% (Batch-1EG), 64% (Batch-2E) and 89% (Batch-2EG). Batch-1, Batch-1E, Batch-1EG, Batch-2, Batch-2E, Batch-2EG were mixed (1:1) with basal rodent chow and fed to young male rats for 3 (n=5/group) or 8 (n=5/group) weeks to assess toxicity. Groups fed uncooked (control) or extruded (extrusion control) uncontaminated (<0.2 ppm FB1) corn grits served as controls. General appearance, body weights and hematology and serum chemistry profiles of all groups were similar. However, relative kidney weights were decreased in groups fed (uncooked) Batch-1 or Batch-2 grits while apoptotic tubule lesions indicative of fumonisin nephropathy were found in the kidneys of animals fed Batch-1, Batch-1E, Batch-2, Batch-2E, or Batch-2EG grits. The lesions were most advanced in the groups fed diets having the highest FB1 concentrations: that is, Batch-1 (diet concentration = 4.9 ppm), Batch-2 (25 ppm) and Batch-2E (9.0 ppm). Less severe, minimal to mild microscopic changes were found in rats fed Batch-1E (1.4 ppm) or Batch-2EG (2.9 ppm). Lesions were absent in the group fed Batch-1EG (0.3 ppm) indicating prevention of toxicity of the Batch-1 grits after cooking by extrusion with glucose supplementation. In summary, chemical analysis and bioassay findings demonstrated that extrusion with glucose supplementation using a twin-screw apparatus significantly reduced FB1 concentrations and in vivo toxicity of contaminated corn grits.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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