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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUTS Title: Spontaneous and induced variability of allergens in commodity crops: Ara h 2 in peanut as a case study.

Authors
item Ozias-Akins, -
item Ramos, M -
item Faustinelli, P -
item Chu, Y -
item Maleki, Soheila
item Thelen, J -
item Huntley, J -
item Arias, K -
item Jordana, Manel -

Submitted to: Journal of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 24, 2008
Publication Date: September 10, 2009
Citation: Ozias-Akins, .P., Ramos, M.L., Faustinelli, P., Chu, Y., Maleki, S.J., Thelen, J.J., Huntley, J., Arias, K., Jordana, M. 2009. Spontaneous and induced variability of allergens in commodity crops: Ara h 2 in peanut as a case study. Journal of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 54:S37-40.

Interpretive Summary: Many commodity crops are grown for human consumption, and the resulting food products usually contain proteins, some of which may be allergenic. The legumes, peanut, and soybean, as well as, tree nuts and some cereal grains are well recognized sources of food allergens. In peanut, there are 11 documented allergenic proteins, although the major allergens are considered to be Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, both of which are seed storage proteins. Methods to reduce or eliminate these proteins from seeds are available, and allow the feasibility of this approach to be tested. Greatly reduced amounts of Ara h 2 can be achieved by silencing in peanut plant; however, altering the sequence (or mutation) of individual allergens is a more viable and socially acceptable approach to allergen elimination. Although the techniques for these alterations are not new, methods for mutant detection at the molecular level have recently been developed; however, these methods are dependent on knowing the sequence of the peanut genome, which is not currently known in full. These methods will facilitate discovery of spontaneous and induced mutations that may be useful over the long term to eliminate certain allergens from the peanut.

Technical Abstract: Many commodity crops are grown for human consumption, and the resulting food products usually contain proteins, some of which may be allergenic. The legumes, peanut, and soybean, as well as, tree nuts and some cereal grains are well recognized sources of food allergens. In peanut, there are 11 documented allergenic proteins, although the major allergens are considered to be Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, both of which are seed storage proteins. Methods to reduce or eliminate these proteins from seeds are available, and allow the feasibility of this approach to be tested. Greatly reduced amounts of Ara h 2 can be achieved by RNA silencing in transgenic peanut; however, mutagenesis is a more viable and socially acceptable approach to allergen elimination. Although the techniques for mutagenesis are not new, methods for mutant detection at the molecular level have recently been developed; however, these methods are dependent on genome sequence. These methods will facilitate discovery of spontaneous and induced mutations that may be useful over the long term to eliminate certain allergens from the peanut.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
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