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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Planting and defoliation timing impacts on cotton yield and quality

Authors
item Balkcom, Kipling
item Bergtold, Jason -
item Monks, Dale -
item Price, Andrew
item Delaney, Dennis -

Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 15, 2010
Publication Date: January 15, 2010
Citation: Balkcom, K.S., Bergtold, J.S., Monks, D., Price, A.J., Delaney, D.P. 2010. Planting and defoliation timing impacts on cotton yield and quality. In: Boyd, S., et al, editors. Proceedings of the National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 4-7, 2010, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 125-130.

Interpretive Summary: Timing of defoliation and planting can affect both cotton yield and cotton quality, which will impact net returns from cotton production. Typically, previous research has focused on examining these factors separately, which can be further complicated by using a conservation system. An experiment was initiated by scientists from the National Soil Dynamics Laboratory and Auburn Univ. in the fall of 2006 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL on a Compass sandy loam to compare three planting dates, and four defoliation percentages (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% open boll). Lint yields were highly variable across the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons, while fiber properties were only affected by planting date in 2007. Gross returns were variable across years, an indication of the variability in climate between those years. As this experiment progresses, multiple years should allow trends to become more apparent and enable different management strategies to be tested across various climatic and market conditions.

Technical Abstract: Timing of defoliation and planting can affect both cotton yield and cotton quality, which will impact net returns from cotton production. Typically, previous research has focused on examining these factors separately, which can be further complicated by using a conservation system. An experiment was initiated in the fall of 2006 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL on a Compass sandy loam (coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Plinthic Paleudults). The experimental design was a strip-plot treatment restriction in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Horizontal plots consisted of three planting dates, and the vertical plots were defoliation times that corresponded to 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% open boll. In 2007, an interaction was observed between planting dates and defoliation percentages for cotton lint yields and uniformity. In 2008, an interaction between planting dates and defoliation percentages was also observed for lint yields. Length, micronaire, and strength were only affected by planting date in 2007, but planting date affected the fiber properties differently. Fiber properties measured in 2008 were not affected by planting dates or defoliation percentages. Seed cotton yields measured in 2009 were affected by planting date and defoliation percentages, but there was no interaction between factors. Gross returns were variable across years, an indication of the variability in climate between those years. As this experiment progresses, multiple years should allow trends to become more apparent and enable different management strategies to be tested across various climatic and market conditions.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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