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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF GENETIC RESOURCES FOR VITIS, PRUNUS, JUGLANS, FICUS, OLEA, PISTACIA, PUNICA, DIOSPYROS, ACTINIDIA, AND MORUS Title: Acclimatization of plantlets from in vitro to the ambient environment

Author
item Preece, John

Submitted to: Wiley Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 2010
Publication Date: April 15, 2010
Repository URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=53-06-20-00
Citation: Preece, J.E. 2010. Acclimatization of plantlets from in vitro to the ambient environment. Wiley Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology. DOI:10.1002/9780470054581.eib593 p. 1-9.

Interpretive Summary: Acclimatizing, hardening-off, or conditioning plantlets from the in vitro to the ambient environment can be a challenge that may result in death or damage to a large percentage of micropropagated plants. When grown in the high humidity, low light environment often encountered in vitro, leaves have altered anatomy; poor cuticle development, with low amounts of epicuticular waxes; and the stomatal apparatus functions poorly with stomata remaining open, even in darkness or in stressful conditions. Gradually acclimatizing the plantlets to the ex vitro environment using mist, fog, or high humidity combined with shading will reduce losses. Light levels can be gradually raised and relative humidity gradually lowered as the plantlets grow new leaves and their shoots elongate. Eventually, plants will thrive in ambient conditions. Soil additives, such as mycorrhizal fungi combined careful attention to sanitation will also aid survival.

Technical Abstract: Acclimatizing, hardening-off, or conditioning plantlets from the in vitro to the ambient environment can be a challenge that may result in death or damage to a large percentage of micropropagated plants. When grown in the high humidity, low light environment often encountered in vitro, leaves have altered anatomy; poor cuticle development, with low amounts of epicuticular waxes; and the stomatal apparatus functions poorly with stomata remaining open, even in darkness or in stressful conditions. Gradually acclimatizing the plantlets to the ex vitro environment using mist, fog, or high humidity combined with shading will reduce losses. Light levels can be gradually raised and relative humidity gradually lowered as the plantlets grow new leaves and their shoots elongate. Eventually, plants will thrive in ambient conditions. Soil additives, such as mycorrhizal fungi combined careful attention to sanitation will also aid survival.

Last Modified: 10/22/2014
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