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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARID RANGELANDS Title: Long-term trends in human demography and economy across sites

Authors
item Peters, Debra
item Laney, Christine -
item Lugo, Ariel -
item Collins, Scott -
item Driscoll, Charles -
item Groffman, Peter -
item Grove, J. Morgan -
item Knapp, Alan -
item Kratz, Timothy -
item Ohman, Mark -

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 15, 2011
Publication Date: November 20, 2013
Citation: Peters, D.C., Laney, C.M., Lugo, A.E., Collins, S.L., Driscoll, C.T., Groffman, P.M., Grove, J., Knapp, A.K., Kratz, T.K., Ohman, M.D. 2013. Long-term trends in human demography and economy across sites. In: Peters, D.P.C., Laney, C.M., Lugo, A.E., et al., editors. Long-Term Trends in Ecological Systems: A Basis for Understanding Responses to Global Change. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Technical Bulletin Number 1931. p 162-190.

Interpretive Summary: This chapter first describes the methods used to obtain data on human populations, and describe the variables used in the book. It then shows graphs of human population and economic data by county for each site, and summary maps at the continental scale. Total population, the percentage of the population living in urban areas, and the density of people in the counties associated with each site are selected. Four economic variables fore each focal county of a site are also selected: the percentage of the population employed by one of four economic sectors: commercial industries, farming, manufacturing, and service industries. Two types of graphs are included to show change through time across a range of spatial scale for each variable: maps of continental scale showing either the % change in total population for four time periods (1800 to 1850; 1850 to 1900, 1900 to 1950, 1950 to 2000) or the % of the population that was urban in each of four time periods (1850, 1900, 1950, 2000); and maps and graphs showing site-scale data through time. The settlement of the country occurred from the east coast and then to the west coast by 1900, and then to the interior between 1900 and 1950. Losses of population in the Midwest occurred between 1950 and 2000. Most areas of the country had a high percentage of urban population by 1950. Urbanization continued for most of the country until 2000 with the Northeast, Appalachian Mountains, and northern Wisconsin providing notable exceptions.

Technical Abstract: This chapter shows long-term data and trends in human demography and economy for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term data for different variables. Total population, the percentage of the population living in urban areas, and the density of people in the counties associated with each site are selected. Four economic variables fore each focal county of a site are also selected: the percentage of the population employed by one of four economic sectors: commercial industries, farming, manufacturing, and service industries. Two types of graphs are included to show change through time across a range of spatial scale for each variable: maps of continental scale showing either the % change in total population for four time periods (1800 to 1850; 1850 to 1900, 1900 to 1950, 1950 to 2000) or the % of the population that was urban in each of four time periods (1850, 1900, 1950, 2000); and maps and graphs showing site-scale data through time. The settlement of the country occurred from the east coast and then to the west coast by 1900, and then to the interior between 1900 and 1950. Losses of population in the Midwest occurred between 1950 and 2000. Most areas of the country had a high percentage of urban population by 1950. Urbanization continued for most of the country until 2000 with the Northeast, Appalachian Mountains, and northern Wisconsin providing notable exceptions.

Last Modified: 11/23/2014
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