BIOINFORMATIC METHODS AND TOOLS TO PREDICT SMALL GRAIN FIELD PERFORMANCE
Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research
Title: Genomic selection in plant breeding: knowledge and prospects
Submitted to: Advances in Agronomy
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: September 13, 2010
Publication Date: February 1, 2011
Citation: Lorenz, A.J., Chao, S., Asoro, F.G., Heffner, E.L., Hayashi, T., Iwata, H., Smith, K.P., Sorrells, M.E., Jannink, J. 2011. Genomic selection in plant breeding: knowledge and prospects. Advances in Agronomy. 110:77-123.
“Genomic selection,” the ability to select for even complex, quantitative traits based on marker data alone, has arisen from the conjunction of new high throughput marker technologies and new statistical methods needed to analyze the data. This review surveys what is known about these technologies, with sections on population and quantitative genetic background, DNA marker development, statistical methods, reported accuracies of genomic selection predictions, prediction of non-additive genetic effects, prediction in the presence of sub-population structure, and impacts of genomic selection on long-term gain. Genomic selection works by estimating effects of many loci spread across the genome. Marker and observation numbers therefore need to scale with the genetic map length in Morgans and with the effective population size of the population under genomic selection. For typical crops the requirements range from at least 200 to at most 10,000 markers and observations. With that baseline, genomic selection can greatly accelerate the breeding cycle while also using marker information to maintain genetic diversity and potentially prolong gain beyond what is possible with phenotypic selection. With the costs of marker technologies continuing to decline, and the statistical methods becoming more routine, the results reviewed here suggest that genomic selection will play a large role in the plant breeding of the future. Our summary and interpretation should prove useful to breeders as they assess the value of genomic selection in the context of their populations and resources.