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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Processing Technologies to Prevent Weight Gain and Obesity Related Metabolic Diseases

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation.

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Milczarek, Rebecca
item Chiu, Mei Chen

Submitted to: Food and Nutrition Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 4, 2011
Publication Date: July 15, 2012
Repository URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.37126
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Milczarek, R.R., Chiu, M.M. 2012. In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 3: 951-958. DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37126.

Interpretive Summary: Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered bile acids results in reduced fat absorption and cholesterol utilization to synthesize bile. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased the risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as that of cancer. Sautée cooking significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper compared with steaming, boiling or raw (uncooked). Sautée cooking resulted in vitro bile acid binding relative to cholestyramine for mustard greens and kale 15%, broccoli 10%, collard greens 9%, cabbage 7%, and green bell pepper 6%. Data suggest that the cooking method with most heath promoting potential for mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper should be sautéing. Steaming should be used for collard green as cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after sutéing would lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, advance human nutrition research and improve public health.

Technical Abstract: Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as that of cancer. Previously we have reported significantly higher bile acid binding by steam cooking compared with uncooked (raw) in several vegetables. In addition to steaming other cooking methods such as boiling or sautéing are quite commonly used before vegetables are consumed. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only and six replicates with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose as the negative control. Sautée cooking resulted in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis relative to cholestyramine for mustard greens and kale 15%, broccoli 10%, collard greens 9%, cabbage 7%, and green bell pepper 6%. These results point to the significantly different (P = 0.05) health promoting potential of mustard greens = kale > broccoli > cabbage > green bell pepper as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Sautéing significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper compared with steaming, boiling or raw (uncooked). Collard greens resulted in significantly higher bile acid binding by steaming compared with sautéing, boiling or raw. Data suggest that the cooking method with most heath promoting potential for mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper should be sautéing. Steaming should be used for collard green as cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after sutéing would lower the risk of premature degenerative diseases, advance human nutrition research and improve public health.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014
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