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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit

Title: The role of vaccines and vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication

Author
item Swayne, David

Submitted to: The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
Publication Type: Research Notes
Publication Acceptance Date: November 20, 2011
Publication Date: December 31, 2011
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2011. The role of vaccines and vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). 2011(4):63-64.

Interpretive Summary: A comprehensive review of avian influenza (AI) control methods in poultry has been completed. From 2002-2010, over 113 billion doses of AI vaccine were used in poultry in 15 countries. The majority of vaccine (over 90%) was used in China while significant amounts were used in Egypt, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) became established in domestic poultry. The other 11 countries used less than 1% of the vaccine. Killed AI vaccines accounted for 95.6 percent and live vaccines for 4.4 percent of vaccine used. Disease and death were prevented in chickens, and rural livelihoods and food security were maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. Fewer outbreaks of Low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) have been reported than HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control programs which accounted for less than 9 percent of the total AI vaccine usage.

Technical Abstract: A comprehensive review of avian influenza (AI) control methods has been completed. From 2002-2010, over 113 billion doses of AI vaccine were used in poultry in 15 countries. The majority of vaccine (over 90%) was used in China while significant amounts were used in Egypt, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Implementation of vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) became endemic in domestic poultry and vaccination did not result in the endemic infections. The other 11 countries used less than 1% of the vaccine. Inactivated AI vaccines accounted for 95.6% and live recombinant fowl poxvirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines for 4.4% of vaccine used. Clinical disease and mortality were prevented in chickens, and rural livelihoods and food security were maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. Fewer outbreaks of Low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) have been reported than HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control programs which accounted for less than 9% of the total H5/H7 AI vaccine usage.

Last Modified: 10/30/2014
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