Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit

Title: Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks

Authors
item Pantin-Jackwood, Mary
item Swayne, David
item Smith, Diane
item Shepherd, Eric

Submitted to: Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 25, 2013
Publication Date: July 22, 2013
Citation: Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Swayne, D.E., Smith, D.M., Shepherd, E.M. 2013. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks. Veterinary Research. 44(1):62. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-62.

Interpretive Summary: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus infections are constantly monitored worldwide because of their devastating effects on poultry. Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination of H5N1 HPAI viruses. Therefore, the successful control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry. To improve the control of this disease it’s necessary to better understand the pathogenesis of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including species susceptibility, host-pathogen interactions, and routes of virus transmission. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different types of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos ducks including, Pekin, Mallards, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different pathogenicity given by any one of three routes, intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular, became infected with the viruses. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varies by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

Technical Abstract: H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. To improve the control of this disease it’s necessary to better understand the pathogenesis of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including species susceptibility, host-pathogen interactions, and routes of virus transmission. The pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies in ducks, with viruses causing from asymptomatic infections to severe clinical signs and high mortality. Differences in the presentation of disease affect the ability to recognize infected ducks and consequently to control the spread of the virus. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different types of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos ducks including, Pekin, Mallards, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different pathogenicity given by any one of three routes, intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular, became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar and depended on the virulence of the virus used. In this case again, the Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varies by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

Last Modified: 12/17/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page