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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Chemistry of Natural Products for Nutraceutical Use, Pest Management and Crop Development

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

Authors
item Ali, Abbas -
item Tabanca, Nurhayat -
item Demirci, Betul -
item Baser, K.HUSNU Can -
item Ellis, Jane -
item Gray, Sandra -
item Lackey, Brent -
item Murphy, Christine -
item Khan, Ikhlas -
item Wedge, David

Submitted to: Natural Product Communications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 21, 2012
Publication Date: January 15, 2013
Citation: Ali, A., Tabanca, N., Demirci, B., Baser, K., Ellis, J., Gray, S., Lackey, B., Murphy, C., Khan, I.A., Wedge, D.E. 2013. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire). Natural Product Communications. 8(2):257-260.

Interpretive Summary: Essential oils obtained from the female cones, male cones, needles-twigs and wood barks of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ Cypress were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the essential oils were determined and evaluated for antifungal activity against strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only wood bark essential oil showed moderate antifungal activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activity at 10 µg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index values of that were significantly lower than synthetic insect repellent, DEET. Essential oil from female cones with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-d-old Aedes aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than male cones (LD50=53.6 ppm), needles-twigs (LD50=55.5 ppm) and wood barks (LD50=44.6 ppm) essential oils.

Technical Abstract: Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main constituents of the investigated essential oils are as follows: FC: '-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: '-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: '-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: '-pinene 40.7% and limonene 3.2%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate antifungal activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 µg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB respectively, and were significantly lower (P=0.05) than synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 µg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI=0.88) and FC (BDI=0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-d-old Aedes aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50=53.6 ppm), NT (LD50=55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50=44.6 ppm) essential oils.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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