Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Integrated Aquatic Animal Health Strategies

Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research

Title: Replicating vaccines

Authors
item Shoemaker, Craig
item Klesius, Phillip

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 7, 2013
Publication Date: May 27, 2014
Citation: Shoemaker, C.A., Klesius, P.H. 2014. Replicating Vaccines. In: Gudding, R., Lillehaug, A., Evensen, O., editors. Fish Vaccination. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 33-46.

Interpretive Summary: Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in fish. Many laboratory studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of live vaccines in fish; however, regulatory approval in the European Union (EU), Asia and South America has not favored licensing and use of live vaccines in aquaculture. Live vaccines induce both cellular and humoral immunity. Research has also proven immersion delivery of live vaccines and thus they are favored in low value species where injection delivery is not cost effective. To date three live bacterial vaccines have been licensed for use in fish including a vaccine against bacterial kidney disease (Canada), one against enteric septicemia of catfish and one against columnaris disease in catfish (USA). A live viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) vaccine is available in Germany. This chapter will focus on attenuation strategies for the development of live vaccines in aquaculture. Aspects concerning live vaccine safety, delivery and generation of the immune response will also be presented.

Technical Abstract: Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in fish. Many laboratory studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of live vaccines in fish; however, regulatory approval in the European Union (EU), Asia and South America has not favored licensing and use of live vaccines in aquaculture. Live vaccines induce both cellular and humoral immunity. Research has also proven immersion delivery of live vaccines and thus they are favored in low value species where injection delivery is not cost effective. To date three live bcterial vaccines have been licensed for use in fish including a vaccine against bacterial kidney disease (Canada), one against enteric septicemia of catfish and one against columnaris disease in catfish (USA). A live viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) vaccine is available in Germany. This chapter will focus on attenuation strategies for the development of live vaccines in aquaculture. Aspects concerning live vaccine safety, delivery and generation of the immune response will also be presented.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page