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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Optical Detection of Food Safety and Food Defense Hazards

Location: Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit

Title: Comparison between visible/ NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses

Authors
item Lawrence, Kurt
item Windham, William
item Park, Bosoon
item Smith, Doug -
item Poole, Gavin -

Submitted to: Proceedings of SPIE
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 30, 2004
Publication Date: March 30, 2004
Citation: Lawrence, K.C., Windham, W.R., Park, B., Smith, D., Poole, G.H. 2004. Comparison between visible/ NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses. Proceedings of SPIE. 5271.

Interpretive Summary: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service has been developing a method and system to detect fecal contamination on processed poultry carcasses with hyperspectral and multispectral imaging systems. The patented method utilizes a three step approach to contaminant detection. Spectra of homogenous samples of feces, ingesta (undigested food particles), and skin were first collected. Then those spectra were evaluated with multivariate analysis techniques to identify significant wavelength regions for further analysis. Hyperspectral data were then collected on contaminated poultry carcasses and information learned from the spectroscopic data was used to aide in hyperspectral data analysis. Finally, the results of the hyperspectral data were used to identify a few optimum wavelengths for use in a real-time multispectral imaging system. In this work, two techniques for developing spectral datasets and algorithms for classifying surface contaminants on poultry carcasses were explored. The first consisted of a scanning monochrometer that measured the average spectra of uncontaminated breast skin and fecal and ingesta contaminants. The second technique used regions of interest (ROI) from a hyperspectral image to collect spatially averaged spectra. Comparison of the spectra from each instrument showed variations in the spectra collected from similar samples. There was an offset of absorption values between the two instruments and the hyperspectral imaging system had better resolution at higher absorption wavelengths. Although both systems were calibrated prior to measuring, there was also a slight shift in absorption peaks between the two systems. Both techniques were able to classify contaminated skin from uncontaminated skin in a full cross-validated test set with better than 99% accuracy. However, when the classification model developed from the monochrometer spectra was applied to whole-carcass hyperspectral images, numerous common carcass features, such as exposed meat and wing-shadowed skin, were wrongly identified as false positives. Since spectra of entire poultry carcasses were available in the original hyperspectral dataset, the hyperspectral ROI technique allowed researchers to easily add the spectra of these false positives to the calibration dataset. New partial least squares regression models with meat and skin shadow spectra resulted in different principal component loadings and improved classification models. The classification model with the combined ROI spectra from skin, feces, ingesta, meat, and skin shadows gave a classification accuracy of 99.5%. When this model was compared to the original model developed from the monochrometer dataset on a few hyperspectral images of contaminated carcasses, fewer false positives were classified with the hyperspectral ROI model without sacrificing the accuracy of contaminant detection. Further research must be done to fully characterize the accuracy of the model.

Technical Abstract: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service has been developing a method and system to detect fecal contamination on processed poultry carcasses with hyperspectral and multispectral imaging systems. The patented method utilizes a three step approach to contaminant detection. Spectra of homogenous samples of feces, ingesta (undigested food particles), and skin were first collected. Then those spectra were evaluated with multivariate analysis techniques to identify significant wavelength regions for further analysis. Hyperspectral data were then collected on contaminated poultry carcasses and information learned from the spectroscopic data was used to aide in hyperspectral data analysis. Finally, the results of the hyperspectral data were used to identify a few optimum wavelengths for use in a real-time multispectral imaging system. In this work, two techniques for developing spectral datasets and algorithms for classifying surface contaminants on poultry carcasses were explored. The first consisted of a scanning monochrometer that measured the average spectra of uncontaminated breast skin and fecal and ingesta contaminants. The second technique used regions of interest (ROI) from a hyperspectral image to collect spatially averaged spectra. Comparison of the spectra from each instrument showed variations in the spectra collected from similar samples. There was an offset of absorption values between the two instruments and the hyperspectral imaging system had better resolution at higher absorption wavelengths. Although both systems were calibrated prior to measuring, there was also a slight shift in absorption peaks between the two systems. Both techniques were able to classify contaminated skin from uncontaminated skin in a full cross-validated test set with better than 99% accuracy. However, when the classification model developed from the monochrometer spectra was applied to whole-carcass hyperspectral images, numerous common carcass features, such as exposed meat and wing-shadowed skin, were wrongly identified as false positives. Since spectra of entire poultry carcasses were available in the original hyperspectral dataset, the hyperspectral ROI technique allowed researchers to easily add the spectra of these false positives to the calibration dataset. New partial least squares regression models with meat and skin shadow spectra resulted in different principal component loadings and improved classification models. The classification model with the combined ROI spectra from skin, feces, ingesta, meat, and skin shadows gave a classification accuracy of 99.5%. When this model was compared to the original model developed from the monochrometer dataset on a few hyperspectral images of contaminated carcasses, fewer false positives were classified with the hyperspectral ROI model without sacrificing the accuracy of contaminant detection. Further research must be done to fully characterize the accuracy of the model.

Last Modified: 7/31/2014
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