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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMMUNOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CONTROLLING SWINE INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MUCOSAL PATHOGENS

Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases

Title: Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus

Authors
item Zou, H -
item Ren, Y -
item Tao, Y -
item Zarlenga, Dante
item Ren, X -

Submitted to: Current Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 5, 2014
Publication Date: July 1, 2014
Citation: Zou, H., Ren, Y., Tao, Y., Zarlenga, D.S., Ren, X. 2014. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus. Current Microbiology. 69(1):82-87.

Interpretive Summary: Porcine parvovirus is among the most common and important causes of infectious infertility in pigs and can result in significant economic losses to the swine industry. It is one of the few viruses that can survive in the environment for extended periods of time and is refractory to most disinfectants. Currently there are no viable treatments for the disease. Vaccination is effective, but cost and safety issues have been deterrents to routine vaccination in many regions of the world. At present, attenuated and killed viral vaccines are being used to control PPV infection; however, attenuated vaccines stand the danger of restructuring and reacquiring virulence. Furthermore, evidence has been advanced that vaccination against PPV may protect against the disease, but it does not necessarily prevent viral infection and virus shedding of heterologous strains. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), the active ingredient of Glycyrrhiza extraction has significant antiinflammatory effects and is active in treating human immunodeficiency virus hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, coronavirus and herpes virus. In this study, the antiviral effects of DG on PPV in vitro were analyzed. Data show that DG decreases infectivity of PPV significantly if incubated with the virus prior to contact with the cells and can reduce virus propagation by 75%. These results are important to other scientists and can impact future approaches to treating this virus infection.

Technical Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of DG on swine testes (ST) cell infection by PPV was investigated using an empirically-determined, non-toxic concentration of DG and three different experimental designs: 1) pre-treatment of virus prior to infection; 2) pre-treatment of cells prior to infection, and; 3) direct treatment of virus-infected cells. The results showed that DG possesses potent inhibitory effects on PPV when the virus was treated before incubation with ST cells, and that virus infectivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assays and real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, deoxycholate was used as a control to exclude the possibility that DG acted as a detergent to inhibit PPV infectivity. The study clearly indicates that DG has a direct anti-PPV effect in vitro.

Last Modified: 9/21/2014
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