Submitted to: Veterinary Pathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 20, 1995
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Cattle with Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) have defective white blood cells (neutrophils) that make them susceptible to infections. They often die of pneumonia or diarrhea at a young age. In this study, we have found that many claves with BLAD survive episodes of pneumonia if they are treated rapidly with appropriate antibiotics. However, later in life they develop severe diarrhea that is unresponsive to treatment. They often have large ulcers in their intestines. Therefore, this study provides useful information to veterinary practitioners and clinicians concerning therapy of cattle with BLAD. This information can be applied to other types of immune-deficiencies as well.
Lesions of the alimentary tract were studied in eight Holstein cattle homozygous for the Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) allele. These cattle received institutional medical care but died or were euthanatized because of chronic debilitation associated with diarrhea in 5/8. The five had acute (n=2) or chronic (n=3) intestinal ulcers; another died of severe pneumonia but had numerous acute enteric ulcers; the last two cattle remained relatively healthy for three years and lacked intestinal tract ulcers. Ulcerated areas were present in the small intestine in six animals, and two of these also had ulcers in the large intestine. Ulcers were covered by thick exudates that, in chronic lesions, partially occluded the intestinal lumen. Intramural and serosal fibrosis also contributed to lumen constriction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intestine of four cattle. In contrast, Bovine Viral Disease Virus (BVDV) and Salmonella were not isolated from five cattle that were tested. This study demonstrates characteristics of intestinal lesions which were integral to the demise of BLAD cattle that received close medical care.