Submitted to: Journal of Applied Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 1996
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Feed is normally the single largest expenditure in semi-intensive and intensive shrimp culture operations, and protein is the most expensive component in feeds for shrimp. This is due to the extensive use of high-cost marine animal proteins such as fish meal, shrimp meal and squid meal to meet the high dietary protein needs for shrimp. The use of less expensive and more readily available plant proteins as substitute for animal proteins would be beneficial in reducing feed costs. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of peanut meal as substitutes for graded levels of marine animal proteins. Results of the study showed that about 12% peanut meal can be used to replace 20 of animal protein without affecting shrimp performance. If feed palatability can be improved, the level of peanut meal can be increased up to 35%. Increasing peanut meal levels to 46.8% and 58.5% affected the growth performance of shrimp due to reduced palatability, and deficiency of lysine and sulfur containing amino acid (methionine and cystine).
Technical Abstract: Six isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 0, 11.7, 23.4, 35.1, 46.8, and 58.5% peanut meal as substitutes, on an equal nitrogen basis, for 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of animal protein mix (53% menhaden fish meal, 34% shrimp waste meal, and 13% squid meal) were fed to juvenile white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) to satiation four times daily for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed the two lowest dietary levels (0 and 11.7%) of peanut meal had similar weight gain (P > 0.05). Protein and fat gains followed the same trend as weight gains. Dry matter feed intakes were about the same for diets containing 0 and 11.7% peanut meal but significantly decreased (P< 0.05) for diets containing 23.4% peanut meal or higher. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent protein utilization were similar for diets having 0, 11.7%, 23.4%, 35.1% peanut meal. These values significantly decreased (P < 0.05) for the 46.8 and 58.5% peanut meal diets. Data on whole body composition of shrimp suggest that there was an inverse relationship between the moisture content and the weight gain, whereas the percentages of protein, fat, and ash were directly related to the weight gains.