Submitted to: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 2, 1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection continues to have a major economic impact on cattle production, despite the availability of more than 130 BVDV vaccines on the U.S. market. Vaccine failure is related, in part, to variation among BVDV. Variation may also lead to failure of diagnostic labs to detect all BVDVs. We have shown in previous research that this variation is the result of BVDV belonging to several different family groups of lineages. Successful programs to control BVD must recognize and compensate for differences between these lineages. Tests currently in use to detect BVD viruses cannot tell one BVD lineage from another. In this study we designed tests that differentiate between BVD lineages. To make sure these tests were reliable, we tried them against a large number of viruses and found them to be highly accurate and reproducible. These tests will allow diagnostic labs to determine which lineage is responsible for a disease outbreak. A potential savings to the industry of more than $7 billion per year will be realized as this information is used to design more effective vaccines.
Technical Abstract: There are two genotypes among bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), BVDV1 and BVDV2. Within the BVDV1 genotype there are two distinct subgenotypes, BVDV1a and BVDV1b. Serology and monoclonal antibody binding are used to differentiate BVDV from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), the other members of the Pestivirus genus. These techniques are less useful in the differentiation and segregation of viruses within the BVDV species. In this study we have evaluated differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification as a tool for segregating BVDV isolates into genotypes and subgenotypes. PCR primers were selected based on comparison of 5' untranslated region sequences from CSVF, BDV, BVDV1a, BVDV1b, and BVDV2. Differential PCR tests were validated using 345 viruses isolated from cattle and small ruminants that had previously been segregated into genotypes and subgenotypes. There was 100% correlation between segregation by differential PCR and the previous segregation of these viral isolates.