|Weststrate, Jan - UNILEVER|
|Meijer, Gert - UNILEVER|
|Chen, Shirley - LIPTON|
|Wittes, Janet - STATISTICS COLLABORATIVE|
|Tracy, Russell - UNIV VERMONT|
Submitted to: British Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 1998
Publication Date: October 1, 1998
Citation: Weststrate, J.A., Baer, D.J., Judd, J.T., Meijer, G.W., Clevidence, B.A., Chen, S.C., Wittes, J., Tracy, R.P. 1998. Effects of margarine versus butter on thrombotic factors in normolipemic adults fed controlled diets. British Journal of Nutrition. Interpretive Summary: A controlled dietary intervention was conducted with 46 healthy men and women. Each volunteer was fed three tablespreads (butter and two margarines), added to an average US diet, to provide 8.3 energy percent (en%) fat. Including the spread, diets averaged 34.6 en% fat and 15.5 en% protein. Each diet was fed for 5 wk. One margarine, a hard stick margarine, prepared with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was formulated to approximate the average trans fatty acid content of all forms of trans-containing margarines in the United States (17% trans, dry weight). Another margarine was free of trans unsaturated fatty acids; it contained approximately twice the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of hard margarine(49% vs 27% total polyunsaturated fatty acids, dry weight). We measured markers of inflammation and blood hemostasis at the end of each period. We conclude that under the conditions of this study, which included a typical US diet, there are few effects on hemostatic and inflammatory markers from the tablespreads consumed. However, the data do suggest an effect of the PUFA-M diet on the clot breakdown system, an effect that is as yet difficult to interpret. The present study does not negate the beneficial effects of including a trans-free or trans-containing margarine compared to butter diet on blood lipids, well established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Individuals who consume butter or margarine, food manufacturers, dieticians and consumer groups involved in making diet recommendations will benefit from the results of this study.
Technical Abstract: The effects of butter and two types of margarine on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were compared in a controlled diet study with 46 adult subjects (23 men and 23 women). Fasting blood samples were taken twice on different days during the 5th wk of each dietary treatment. We measured a battery of markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, factor VII activity, factor XIa-alpha-1-antitrypsin, activated protein C-resistance), fibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator [tPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], D-dimer, plasmin-alpha-2-antiplasmin), and inflammation (C-reactive protein, E-selectin). While most markers did not differ among diets, PAI-1 concentration was 20% higher after consumption of PUFA-M compared to butter (P=0.015) and about 14% higher compared to TFA-M (P=0.081). tPA concentration after PUFA-M consumption was about 10% higher compared to TFA-M (P=0.010), and about 7% compared to butter (P=0.061). These findings suggest a moderate negative effect on the fibrinolytic system after consumption of the diet containing PUFA-M. No significant differences were found among the various diets in hemostatic and inflammatory factors considered important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as fibrinogen and factor VII. The results of the present study do not negate the beneficial effects of trans-free and trans-containing margarines compared to butter on LDL cholesterol, a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease.