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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effect of Resistive Training and Chromium Picolinate on Body Composition and Skeletal Muscle Size in Older Women

Authors
item Campbell, Wayne - PURDUE UNIV., W LAF., IN
item Joseph, Lyndon - UNIV. ARKANSAS, LT RCK,AR
item Anderson, Richard
item Davey, Stephanie - UNIV. ARKANSAS, LT RCK,AR
item Hinton, Jeremy - UNIV. ARKANSAS, LT RCK,AR
item Evans, William - UNIV. ARKANSAS, LT RCK,AR

Submitted to: International Journal of Sport Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 20, 2001
Publication Date: March 20, 2002
Citation: Campbell, W., Joseph, L., Anderson, R.A., Davey, S., Hinton, J., Evans, W. 2002. Effect of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 12:125-135 (2002)

Interpretive Summary: Chromium is an essential nutrient required for normal sugar and fat metabolism. Chromium has also been shown to increase muscle mass and decrease the percent body fat in both animal and human studies. The incidence of higher than desirable body weight and obesity is prevalent in the general population and even small changes may be very beneficial over time. This study assessed the effects of resistive training (RT), with or without chromium picolinate (Cr-pic) supplementation, on body composition and skeletal muscle size of older women. Urinary chromium excretion was 60-fold higher in the Cr-pic group, compared to the Placebo group, during the intervention. Resistive training increased maximal strength of the muscle groups trained by 8 to 34%, and these responses were not influenced significantly by Cr-pic supplementation over time. Small improvements in body composition due to supplemental Cr were not significant under the conditions of the study. This work is of direct benefit to the scientific and medical communities and may help quantify any changes in body composition expected by older women consuming supplemental chromium.

Technical Abstract: This study assessed the effects of resistive training (RT), with or without high-dose chromium picolinate (Cr-pic) supplementation, on body composition and skeletal muscle size of older women. Seventeen sedentary women, age range 54-71 years, BMI 28.8 +/- 2.4 kg/m, were randomly assigned (double-blind) to groups (Cr-pic, n = 9; Placebo, n = 8) that consumed either 924 ug Cr/d as Cr-pic or a low-Cr placebo (<0.2 u/d Cr/d) during a 12-week RT program (2 d/wk, 3 exercise sets/d, 80% of one repetition maximum). Urinary chromium excretion was 60-fold higher in the Cr-pic group, compared to the Placebo group (P<0.001), during the intervention. Resistive training increased maximal strength of the muscle groups trained by 8 to 34% (P<0.001), and these responses were not influenced by Cr-pic supplementation over time. Percent body fat and fat- free mass were unchanged with RT in these weight-stable women, independent of Cr-pic supplementation. Type I and type II muscle fiber areas of the m. vastus lateralis were not changed over time and were not influenced by Cr- pic supplementation. These data demonstrate that high-dose Cr-pic supplementation did not increase maximal strength above that of resistive training alone in older women. Further, these data show that, under these experimental conditions, whole body composition and skeletal muscle size were not significantly changed due to resistive training and were not influenced by supplemental chromium picolinate.

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