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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER AND PIERCE'S DISEASE Title: Behavioral model for Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): Optimization of host plant utilization and management implications

Authors
item Mizell, R -
item Tipping, C - DELAWARE VALLEY COLLEGE
item Andersen, P - UNIVERSITY FLORIDA
item Brodbeck, B - UNIVERSITY FLORIDA
item Hunter, Wayne
item Northfield, T -

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 1, 2007
Publication Date: February 5, 2009
Citation: Mizell, R.F., Tipping, C., Andersen, P.C., Brodbeck. B.V., Hunter. W.B., Northfield, T. 2009 Behavioral model for Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): Optimization of host plant utilization and management implications. Enivromental Entomology. 37:1049-1062

Interpretive Summary: We produced a behavioral model which integrates leafhopper behavior and life history strategies with nutritional requirements, as a useful tool to understand the patterns of leafhopper host plant utilization, vector behavior and ecology, and aids the development of better biological control and habitat manipulation strategies aimed at reducing the spread of Pierce’s disease. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, feeds on the fluid inside the xylem vessels in plants. The leafhopper occurs naturally in the southeastern US and northern Mexico with recent accidental introductions into California, French Polynesia, and Hawaii. It is a primary vector of the xylem-limited bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce’s disease of grape, citrus variegated chlorosis, phony peach, and numerous other leaf-scorch diseases. H. vitripennis utilizes several hundred species of host plants for feeding, development and reproduction. This broad host plant range is due to the nature of nutrient-poor, yet relatively conserved constituency of xylem fluid, which can fluctuate severely throughout the year and seasons, thus influencing the spread, movement and biology of H. vitripennis. Here we provide a conceptual behavioral model that integrates behavior and life history strategies with the nutritional requirements of adult and nymphal stages of H. vitripennis. By combining these elements, this model is a useful tool for anyone seeking to understand the patterns of insect host plant utilization, vector behavior and ecology, and aids in the development of biological control and habitat manipulation strategies.

Technical Abstract: We produced a behavioral model which integrates leafhopper behavior and life history strategies with nutritional requirements, as a useful, heuristic tool to understand the patterns of leafhopper host plant utilization, vector behavior and ecology, which also aids the development of better biological control and habitat manipulation strategies aimed at reducing the spread of Pierce’s disease. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis Germar, (Hemiptera: Proconini: Cicadellidae) is a xylophagous leafhopper endemic to the southeastern US and northern Mexico with recent accidental introductions into California, French Polynesia, and Hawaii. GWSS is a primary vector of the xylem-limited bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce’s disease of grape, citrus variegated chlorosis, phony peach, and numerous leaf scorch diseases. H. vitripennis utilizes several hundred species of host plants for feeding, development and reproduction. This broad host plant range is due to the nature of nutrient-poor, yet relatively conserved constituency of xylem fluid, which can fluctuate diurnally and seasonally in relation to phenology. Here we provide a conceptual model that integrates behavior and life history strategies with the nutritional requirements of adult and nymphal stages of H. vitripennis. This model is a useful, heuristic tool for anyone seeking to understand the patterns of insect host plant utilization, vector behavior and ecology, and provides insight which will aid the development of more efficient biological control and habitat manipulation strategies to reduce leafhopper transmitted diseases.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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