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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EVALUATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOTIC PLANT PATHOGENS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INTRODUCED, INVASIVE WEEDS Title: Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Useful for Sorghum Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Related Species

Authors
item Perumal, Ramasamy - TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY
item Nimmakayala, Padma - WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIV.
item Erattaimuthu, Saradha - TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY
item No, Eun-Gyu - TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY
item Reddy, Umesh - WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIV.
item Prom, Louis
item Odvody, Gary - TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY
item Luster, Douglas
item Magill, Clint - TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 29, 2008
Publication Date: December 29, 2008
Citation: Perumal, R., Nimmakayala, P., Erattaimuthu, S., No, E., Reddy, U.K., Prom, L.K., Odvody, G.N., Luster, D.G., Magill, C.W. 2008. Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Useful for Sorghum Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Related Species. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 9:77.

Interpretive Summary: A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew, in Texas, has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathogenic form of the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among closely related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for genetic markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a method to discover and develop molecular markers that permit us to detect differences at the DNA level across 34 Peronosclerospora and Sclerospora spp isolates studied. Cluster analysis grouped the 34 isolates into three distinct groups (all 19 isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi in cluster I, five isolates of P. maydis and three isolates of P. sacchari in cluster II and five isolates of Sclerospora graminicola in cluster III). The newly developed markers thus can be readily used to distinguish isolates within several species of the mildews that cause downy mildew diseases.

Technical Abstract: A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew, in Texas, has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) to detect differences at the DNA level. Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55 percent) with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11 percent) with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40 percent) and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15 percent in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that causes downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from five to sixty. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis), sugar cane (P. sacchari), pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola) and rose (Peronospora sparsa) indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production) were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 1,346 alleles were obtained using 53 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 25 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34 Peronosclerospora and Sclerospora spp isolates studied. Cluster analysis by UPGMA as well as principal coordinate analysis (PCA) grouped the 34 isolates into three distinct groups (all 19 isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi in cluster I, five isolates of P. maydis and three isolates of P. sacchari in cluster II and five isolates of Sclerospora graminicola in cluster III). The newly developed SSR markers thus can be readily used to distinguish isolates within several species of the oomycetes that cause downy mildew diseases.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
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