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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF QUARANTINE ALTERNATIVES FOR SUBTROPICAL FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PESTS Title: Factors affecting ionizing radiation phytosanitary treatments, and implications for research and generic treatments

Authors
item Hallman, Guy
item Levang-Brilz, Nichole -
item Zettler, James
item Winborne, Ian -

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 26, 2010
Publication Date: December 1, 2010
Citation: Hallman, G.J., Levang-Brilz, N.M., Zettler, J.L., Winborne, I.C. 2010. Factors affecting ionizing radiation phytosanitary treatments, and implications for research and generic treatments. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103:1950-1963.

Interpretive Summary: Irradiation quarantine treatments are used to overcome quarantine barriers to trade in the US, Mexico, India, Vietnam and Thailand. Their advantages promise increased use throughout the world. One key disadvantage bedevils research, regulatory approval, and commercial use: pests may be found alive upon inspection. Although this does not preclude their use as a quarantine treatment, it does leave the treatment without an independent verification of efficacy and places a greater burden for assuring quarantine security on the research supporting the treatment. This paper analyses several factors that have been thought to affect the efficacy of irradiation: low oxygen storage, pest stage, host, radiation dose rate, and temperature. Of these, low oxygen storage is known to affect efficacy, while host and dose rate probably need more study. The International Plant Protection Convention considered a number of irradiation treatments for its international treatment manual and initially did not approve some because of perceived problems with the research or the presence of live adults after treatment. Based on these concerns, recommendations for research and dealing with the issue of live adults after irradiation, are given. Generic irradiation treatments are suggested.

Technical Abstract: Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments are promising measures to overcome quarantine barriers to trade and are currently used in several countries. Although PI has advantages compared with other treatments, one disadvantage bedevils research approval/application: organisms may remain alive after importation. Although this does not preclude their use as a phytosanitary treatment, it does leave the treatment without an independent verification of efficacy and places a greater burden for assuring quarantine security on the research supporting the treatment. This paper analyses several factors that have been hypothesized to affect PI efficacy: low oxygen, pest stage, host, dose rate, and temperature. Of these, the first is known to affect efficacy, while host and dose rate probably need more research. The International Plant Protection Convention considered a number of PI treatments for its international standard on phytosanitary treatments and initially did not approve some because of perceived problems with the research or the presence of live adults after irradiation. Based on these concerns, recommendations for research and dealing with the issue of live adults post-irradiation, are given. Generic PI treatments are suggested.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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