Submitted to: Journal of Radiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 12, 2012
Publication Date: July 1, 2012
Citation: Hallman, G.J. 2012. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 81(7):861-866.
Interpretive Summary: This paper presents the history of the significant development of generic phytosanitary (quarantine) irradiation treatments and recommendations for future research to develop more treatments. The generic concept was proposed for irradiation in 1986 and many individuals aided in developing it for commercial use. Today they are used in several countries, including the US. Efforts to develop additional generic irradiation treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera are being guided by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency. Key groups for further development are Lepidoptera, mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may eventually replace the 400 Gy dose for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera.
The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization / International Atomic Energy Agency providing a broad based effort. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.