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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

Title: Vital Signs: Food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008

Authors
item Moshfegh, Alanna
item Holden, Joanne
item Reedy, Jill -
item Cogswell, Mary -
item Kuklina, Elena -
item Patel, Sheena -
item Gunn, Janelle -
item Gillespie, Cathleen -
item Hong, Yuling -
item Merritt, Robert -
item Galuska, Deborah -

Submitted to: Electronic Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 13, 2012
Publication Date: February 10, 2012
Repository URL: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm61e0207.pdf
Citation: Moshfegh, A.J., Holden, J.M., Reedy, J., Cogswell, M.E., Kuklina, E.V., Patel, S.M., Gunn, J.P., Gillespie, C., Hong, Y., Merritt, R., Galuska, D.A. 2012. Vital Signs: Food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 61(5):92-98. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm61e0207.pdf.

Interpretive Summary: Most of the U.S. population consumes sodium in excess of recommendations from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that Americans overall should consume no more than 2,300 mg of sodium daily and 1,500 mg for specific populations. Excessive sodium intake is linked to increased risk for hypertension in adults with emerging evidence that suggests a similar relationship in children. This report estimates sodium consumption from specific food categories and sources among 7,227 participants aged >=2 years in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008. Mean daily sodium consumption was 3,193 mg. Forty-four percent of sodium consumed came from 10 food categories: bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, pizza, poultry, soups, sandwiches, cheese, pasta mixed dishes, meat mixed dishes, and savory snacks. For most of these categories, >70% of the sodium consumed came from foods obtained at a store. The information in the research paper is informative for health and nutrition professionals, educators, and policy officials interested in dietary intake data of the U.S. population. It is also useful to those who are developing education programs and policy initiatives to lower sodium intake, and for monitoring changes in sodium intakes.

Technical Abstract: Most of the U.S. population consumes sodium in excess of daily guidelines (<2,300 mg overall and 1,500 mg for specific populations). Excessive sodium consumption raises blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, the nation’s first and fourth leading causes of death. Identifying food categories contributing the most to daily sodium consumption can help reduction. Population proportions of sodium consumption from specific food categories and sources were estimated among 7,227 participants aged >=2 years in the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008. Mean daily sodium consumption was 3,193 mg, excluding salt added at the table. Forty-four percent of sodium consumed came from 10 food categories: bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, pizza, poultry, soups, sandwiches, cheese, pasta mixed dishes, meat mixed dishes, and savory snacks. For most of these categories, >70% of the sodium consumed came from foods obtained at a store. For pizza and poultry, respectively, 42% and 26% of sodium consumed came from foods obtained at fast food/pizza restaurants. Mean sodium consumption per calorie consumed was significantly greater for foods and beverages obtained from fast food/pizza or other restaurants versus stores.

Last Modified: 10/19/2014
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