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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IDENTIFICATION OF DISEASE MECHANISMS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR BACTERIAL RESPIRATORY PATHOGENS IN CATTLE Title: Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

Authors
item SACCO, RANDY
item MCGILL, JODI
item Pillatzki, A -
item PALMER, MITCHELL
item Ackermann, M -

Submitted to: Veterinary Pathology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: July 8, 2013
Publication Date: March 1, 2014
Citation: Sacco, R.E., Mcgill, J.L., Pillatzki, A.E., Palmer, M.V., Ackermann, M.R. 2014. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle. Veterinary Pathology. 51(2):427-436 DOI: 10.1177/0300985813501341.

Interpretive Summary: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of pneumonia in young calves. Furthermore, bRSV plays a role shipping fever, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to shipping fever, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from bovine respiratory diseases have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. This invited review summarizes available data on bRSV infection in cattle, the immune response to bRSV, and vaccine strategies.

Technical Abstract: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by organisms such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni resulting in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to BRDC, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from BRD have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. Human RSV (hRSV) and bRSV are closely related viruses with similarities in histopathological lesions and mechanisms of immune modulation induced following infection. Therefore, where appropriate, we provide comparisons between RSV infections in humans and cattle. This review article discusses key aspects of RSV infection of cattle including epidemiology and strain variability, clinical signs and diagnosis, experimental infection, gross and microscopic lesions, innate and adaptive immune responses, and vaccination strategies.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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