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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: What We Eat in America - Dietary Survey: Data Collection, Interpretation, Dissemination, and Methodology

Location: Food Surveys

Title: Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006, Tables 1-4

Authors
item Bowman, Shanthy
item Clemens, John
item Friday, James
item Thoerig, Rachel -
item Moshfegh, Alanna

Submitted to: Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: March 13, 2014
Publication Date: March 27, 2014
Citation: Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23868.

Interpretive Summary: To evaluate how well Americans adhere to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations, a Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 has been developed for the foods reported in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006. The main Food Patterns (FP) components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components have several subcomponents, resulting in a total of 37 FP components. The four table sets provide mean intakes of the 37 FP components per individual grouped by the following demographic categories: age-gender (21 groups), race/ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (15 groups), and annual household income in dollars (15 groups). The mean intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains were well below the DGA recommendations. Individuals 2 years and over consumed only 0.97 cup equivalents of fruit of which 40 percent was consumed as fruit juice. The dark green vegetables intake was very low, only about a tenth of a cup equivalent. Potatoes were the highest consumed vegetable (0.35 cup eq.) followed by tomatoes (0.32 cup eq.). Whole grains intake was less than one ounce equivalent (0.68 oz. eq.). Mean intake of total meat, poultry, and seafood was 4.7 ounce equivalents. Hispanics consumed about 1.1 cup equivalents of total fruit of which 44 percent was consumed as juice. Hispanics consumed 0.23 cup equivalent of legumes whereas Non-Hispanic whites consumed 0.07 and Non-Hispanic blacks consumed 0.06 cup equivalent of legumes. All race/ethnicity groups consumed less than one ounce equivalent of whole grains. This information is useful to nutritionists and policymakers to assess the diet quality of Americans from different demographic backgrounds. This information can be used to develop appropriate nutrition intervention programs for specific population segments.

Technical Abstract: The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) components per individual estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES), 2005-2006 and Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED), 2005-2006. Data are presented by the following demographic categories: age-gender (21 groups), race/ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (15 groups), and annual household income in dollars (15 groups). The main FP components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components are further subdivided so as to enhance the use of FPED to facilitate in-depth analyses. The national mean total fruit intake was about 1 cup equivalent of which about forty percent was consumed as fruit juice, about twenty percent as citrus, melons and berries, and forty percent as other fruit (fruit other than citrus, melons and berries). The mean total vegetables intake was 1.45 cup equivalents of which about one-fourth was potatoes and about one-fifth was tomatoes. Whole grains consumption was less than one ounce equivalent and far below the Dietary Guidelines recommendations. Total dairy intake was 1.8 cup equivalents of which 38 percent was cheese and 58 percent was fluid milk, which included dry and evaporated milk computed as fluid milk equivalents. The mean intakes of meat (uncured), poultry, and cured meat components were 1.67, 1.43, and 0.99 ounce equivalents, respectively. The solid fats and oils intakes were 42 and 22 gram equivalents, respectively. Hispanics consumed about one-fifth cup equivalents of legumes as vegetables. Individuals from low income households (under 131 percent of poverty) consumed 1.05 cup equivalents of total fruit of which about half was fruit juice. Individuals from high income household (over 185 percent of poverty) consumed 0.95 cup equivalents of which about a third was fruit juice.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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