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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: What We Eat in America - Dietary Survey: Data Collection, Interpretation, Dissemination, and Methodology

Location: Food Surveys

Title: Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide

Authors
item Bowman, Shanthy
item Clemens, John
item Friday, James
item Thoerig, Rachel -
item Moshfegh, Alanna

Submitted to: Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: March 13, 2014
Publication Date: March 27, 2014
Citation: Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23870.

Interpretive Summary: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2010 provide recommendations on how much to eat from the USDA Food Patterns (FP) components such as Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, and Oils and place limits on Alcoholic Drinks, Added Sugars, and Solid Fats consumption. To evaluate how well Americans adhere to the DGA recommendations, it is necessary to convert the foods reported in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to appropriate FP components. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 has been developed to serve this purpose. The FPED converts 7,000+ foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 to the respective number of cup equivalents of Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy; ounce equivalents of Grains and Protein Foods; number of alcoholic drinks for Alcoholic Beverages; teaspoon equivalents of Added Sugars; and gram equivalents of Solid Fats and Oils. The FNDDS 3.0 foods and beverages are made of various combinations of 2,700+ unique ingredients, and a Food Patterns Equivalents Ingredients Database (FPID) has been created for these ingredients. The Methodology and User Guide describes FPED developmental process in detail with algorithms and many computational examples. In addition to FPED and FPID, the release includes the amounts of 37 FP components reported consumed by each of the respondents on days 1 and 2 of WWEIA, NHANES 2005-2006, and a SAS codes file for the estimation of mean intakes of FP components on day 1 by 21 age-gender groups. The FPED and FPID have the potential to link nutrition, agriculture, and economics, and are useful to researchers, nutritionists, economists, food growers, food producers, nutrition educators, and policymakers.

Technical Abstract: The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 is to convert the 7,000+ foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to USDA Food Patterns (FP) components. The FNDDS 3.0 foods are made of various combinations of 2,700+ unique ingredients, and a Food Patterns Equivalents Ingredients Database (FPID) has been created for these ingredients. The main FP components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components are further subdivided so as to increase the application of FPED and to facilitate in-depth data analyses. As a result, there are 37 FP components in FPED. Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy are computed in cup equivalents; Grains and Protein Foods are computed in ounce equivalents; Alcoholic Drinks are in number of drinks; Added Sugars are in teaspoon equivalents; and, Oils and Solid Fats are in gram equivalents. FNDDS 3.0 foods and beverages are disaggregated to ingredients that can be directly assigned to one of the FP components. The FP components are then computed for the ingredients. The amounts of each of the 37 FP components present per 100 grams of each FNDDS foods are computed by adding the FP components present in the ingredients. The FPED release includes: (1) Methodology and User Guide describing the guiding principles and process of FPED development with algorithms and computational examples; (2) FPED containing 37 FP components present per 100 grams of FNDDS 3.0 foods; (3) FPID for the unique ingredients in MS Access and SAS; (4) the amounts of FP components reported consumed by each of the survey respondents on days 1 and 2 of WWEIA, NHANES 2005-2006; and (5) a SAS codes file for the estimation of mean intakes of FP components by 21 age-gender groups on day 1 of the survey.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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