Submitted to: Cotton Biochemistry and Biotechnology Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: December 28, 1998
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Breeding priorities with respect to fiber properties must reflect the changing needs of the yarn manufacturing and cotton textile industries. Technological advances in yarn and textile production demand different fiber profiles than that emphasized by older technology such as ring spinning. The purpose of this paper is to review current priorities for fiber property modification and efforts of the ARS, Florence, SC cotton breeding program to meet these needs. Fiber strength is needed more than ever because open-end spinning and high-output textile manufacture being adopted by industry place more strain on fiber and yarns. Achievement of an enhanced level of fiber strength is a key goal of the ARS breeding program. Towards this end we have several long-term projects in progress that are attempting to introgress fiber strength and other properties from G. barbadense, New Mexico Acalas, and chromosome substitution lines into agronomically acceptable upland germplasm. The breeding program is also emphasizing reduction of short and immature fiber content, increased fiber maturity, and development of germplasm with finer fiber. Measurement of short fiber content, fineness, and immature fiber content are now feasible with the Advanced Fiber Information System. Additionally, we have found most of these traits to be heritable, indicating the possibility of genetic advance.