Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 30, 2006
Publication Date: February 5, 2007
Citation: Jang, E.B., Siderhurst, M.S. 2007. Female biased attraction of oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from terminalia catappa l.. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32:2513-2524 Interpretive Summary: The absence of a good female lure for fruit fly species is a limiting factor on the control and monitoring of these pests. The development of such a lure would allow direct targeting of female flies, a more effective strategy than trapping males, and give a better understanding of fly biology in the field. In this study we use the oriental fruit flies’, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), own odor sensors to evaluate what chemicals from the tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., may work as attractants. Chemicals that the flies could ‘smell’ were then tested in a number of artificial and semi-natural arenas. Several combinations (blends) of the ‘odor’ chemicals were found to have female biased/selective attraction of oriental fruit fly. These blends offer insight into what attracts female oriental fruit flies and may lead to lures that can control these pests to the benefit of tropical agricultural fruit growers.
Technical Abstract: Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., identified 20 compounds which were detected by oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Compounds eliciting the largest EAD responses were geranyl acetate, methyl eugenol and citronellyl acetate. Synthetic blends containing all active compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays but heavily male-biased trap captures in larger olfactometer and field cage arenas. A nine-component blend of weakly EAD active compounds (EAD minor), equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linallyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate and (E)-'-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to Torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.