Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 17, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: An effective means of detecting and trapping female Mediterranean fruit flies does not exist. These pests oviposit in fruits, vegetables, and nuts, destroying their marketability. Coffee is the primary host of female medflies, and thus is a key to the discovery of natural attractants. Headspace analysis of coffee fruit revealed the presence of 28 compounds, some of which were green leaf volatiles, as potential female medfly attractants. This contributed knowledge will assist in further studies in combination with male medfly pheromones and baits in developing an effective female medfly attractant for monitoring and detection of female medfly populations.
Technical Abstract: Twenty eight volatile compounds from freshly crushed, ripe, dark red coffee fruit, Coffea arabica, were identified by dynamic headspace analysis techniques. Identifications were made on the basis of a comparison of Kovats indices and GC/MS spectra for unknowns and authentic samples. Of the compounds identified, ten were alcohols, nine were aldehydes, five were ketones, two were esters, one was an ether, and one was a monoterpene. The five most abundant volatiles in decreasing order were hexanal (20.7%), 2-(E)-hexenal (10.8%), 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.96%), 3-methyl-1-butanal (8.49%), and 1-hexanol (8.43%). The five least abundant volatiles in increasing order were decanal (0.191%), methyl hexanoate (0.331%), pulegone (0.440%), alpha-iso-menthone (0.452%), and 2-nonanone (0.548%). The identified volatiles are potential attractants for female Mediterranean fruit flies.