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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Justin D. Derner

SUPERVISORY RESEARCH RANGELAND MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST

 Justin Derner

Dr. Justin D. Derner 
Research Leader

Rangeland Scientist   

CONTACT INFORMATION
   
ADDRESS: USDA, ARS, NPA 
                High Plains Grasslands Research Station
                8408 Hildreth Road
                Cheyenne, WY 82009-8899
 
PHONE OFFICE:     (307) 772-2433 Ext. 113
CELL:                    (307) 631-5928
FAX:                     (307) 637-6124
    
   
E-MAIL: Justin.Derner@ars.usda.gov 

 

Degrees          Research        Publications


DEGREES:

 University of Nebraska-Lincoln    

B.S. 

 Agricultural Sciences (Range Management)

 1991
 Oklahoma State University    

 M.S.

 Agronomy (Range Science)

 1993
 Texas A&M University    

 PH. D.

 Rangeland Ecology and Management

 1996


RESEARCH INTERESTS:

Serves as Lead Scientist for the NP215 (Pasture, Forage and Rangeland Systems) project entitled “Improved Management to Balance Production and Conservation in Great Plains Rangelands.” This multi-disciplinary team of scientists develops and provides private and public land managers the necessary tools for properly managing semiarid rangelands for multiple ecosystem goods and services with extreme and variable weather.  Overarching questions for our research are: 1) How can science be conducted in a real-world manner (i.e., at ranch-level scales with manager involvement) to evaluate effectiveness of adaptive grazing management for both production and conservation?, and 2) How effective are management and conservation practices on individual ecological sites within the landscape?  This project uses: 1) novel, collaborative adaptive grazing experiments to achieve desired production and conservation outcomes, 2) multiple remote sensing platforms and ground-based sampling to determine effectiveness of management and conservation practices for different ecological sites in large landscapes (>75,000 ha) of the western Great Plains, and 3) long-term, historical data to determine relationships between livestock weight gains and climatic variability in the Great Plains.  Coordinated regional/national efforts involve other ARS units and networks (e.g. Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research, LTAR), universities and producers.  Outcomes from this research will help fill identified gaps in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), provide large-scale assessments of the effectiveness of management and conservation practices on individual ecological sites, and promote dynamic stocking rates for adaptation to climatic variability.

PUBLICATIONS:

Augustine, D.J., P. Brewer, D. M. Blumenthal, J. D. Derner, and J. C. von Fischer. 2014. Prescribed fire, soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics, and plant responses in a semiarid grassland. Journal of Arid Environments 104:59-66.

Svejcar, T., C. Boyd, K. Davies, M. Madsen, J. Bates, R. Sheley, C. Marlow, D. Bohnert, M. Borman, R. Mata-Gonza`lez, J. Buckhouse, T. Stringham, B. Perryman, S. Swanson, K. Tate, M. George, G. Ruyle, B. Roundy, C. Call, K. Jensen, K. Launchbaugh, A. Gearhart, L. Vermeire, J. Tanaka, J. Derner, G. Frasier, and K. Havstad. 2014.  Western Land Managers will Need all Available Tools for Adapting to Climate Change, Including Grazing: A Critique of Beschta et al. Environmental Management DOI 10.1007/s00267-013-0218-2.

Augustine, D. J., and J. D. Derner. 2014. Controls over the strength and timing of fire–grazer interactions in a semi-arid rangeland. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:242–250.

Derner, J. D.,  D. J. Augustine, and E. Kachergis. 2014. Cattle as Ecosystem Engineers: New grazing management enhances rangeland biodiversity. Western Confluence, winter:10-13.

Briske, D. D., A. J. Ash, J. D. Derner, and L. Huntsinger. 2014. Commentary: A critical assessment of the policy endorsement for holistic management. Agricultural Systems 125:50-53.

Derner, J. D.,  G. E. Schuman, R. F. Follett and G. F. Vance. 2014. Plant and Soil Consequences of Shrub Management in a Big Sagebrush-Dominated Rangeland Ecosystem. Environment and Natural Resources Research 4:19-30.

Reeves, J. L., J. D. Derner, M. A. Sanderson, J. R. Hendrickson, S. L. Kronberg, M. K. Petersen, and L. T. Vermeire. 2014. Seasonal weather influences on yearling beef steer production in C3-dominated Northern Great Plains rangeland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 183:110-117.

Rebollo, S., D. G. Milchunas , P. Stapp , D. J. Augustine, and J. D. Derner. 2013. Disproportionate effects of non-colonial small herbivores on structure and diversity of grassland dominated by large herbivores. Oikos 122: 1757-1767.

Lubell, M. N., B. B. Cutts, L. M. Roche, M. Hamilton, J. D. Derner, E. Kachergis, and K. W. Tate. 2013. Conservation program participation and adaptive rangeland decision-making. Rangeland Ecology & Management 66:609–620

Reeves, J. L., J. D. Derner, M. A. Sanderson, M. K. Petersen, L. T. Vermeire, J. R. Hendrickson, and S. L. Kronberg. 2013. Temperature and precipitation affect steer weight gains differentially by stocking rate in northern mixed-grass prairie. Rangeland Ecology & Management 66: 438-444.

Reeves, J. L., J. D. Derner, M. A.Sanderson, M. K.Petersen, L. T.Vermeire, J. R. Hendrickson, and S. L. Kronberg. 2013. Seasonal temperature and precipitation effects on cow–calf production in northern mixed-grass prairie. Livestock Science 155:355-363.

Derner, J., E. Kachergis and J. Reeves. 2013 Rangeland Research Roundup: So what? Who cares? CowCountry Spring 18-19.

Kachergis, E., J. D. Derner, L. M. Roche, K. W. Tate, M.N. Lubell, R. D. Mealor, and J. Magagna. 2013. Characterizing Wyoming ranching operations: Natural resource goals, management practices and information sources. Natural Resources 4:45-54.

Augustine, D. J., and J. D. Derner, 2013. Assessing herbivore foraging behavior with GPS collars in a semiarid grassland. Sensors 13:3711-3723; doi:10.3390/s130303711

Derner, J. D., and J. Reeves. 2013. Lessons from long-term cattle weight gain data. Cow County 18.

Augustine, D. J., D. G. Milchunas, and J. D. Derner. 2013. Spatial redistribution of nitrogen by cattle in semiarid rangeland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 66:56–62.

Derner, J. D., D. J. Augustine, J. C. Ascough II, and L. R. Ahuja. 2012. Opportunities for increasing utility of models for rangeland management. Rangeland Ecology & Management 65:623–631.

Derner, J. D., D. D. Briske, and H. W. Polley. 2012. Tiller organization within the tussock grass Schizachyrium scoparium: a field assessment of competition–cooperation tradeoffs. Botany 90:669–677.

Derner, J. D., and V. L. Jin. 2012. Soil carbon dynamics and rangeland management. In: M.A. Liebig, A.F. Franzluebbers and R.F. Follett (eds.). Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases. Elsevier. pp. 79-92.

Augustine, D. J., and J. D. Derner. 2012. Disturbance regimes and mountain plover habitat in shortgrass steppe: large herbivore grazing does not substitute for prairie dog grazing or fire. The Journal of Wildlife Management 76:721–728.

Qi, Z., P. N. S. Bartling, L. R. Ahuja, J. D. Derner, G. H. Dunn, and L. Ma.  2012.  Development and evaluation of the carbon-nitrogen cycle module for the GPFARM-Range modelComputers and Electronics in Agriculture 83:1-10.

Augustine, D. J., D. T. Booth, S. E. Cox, and J. D. Derner. 2012. Grazing intensity and spatial heterogeneity in bare soil in a grazing-resistant grassland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 65:39-46.

Spangler, L., G. F. Vance, G. E. Schuman, and J. D. Derner. 2011. Rangeland sequestration potential assessment-final report. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, U.S. Department of Energy.

Follett, R. F., S. Mooney, J. A. Morgan, K. Paustian, L. H. Allen, Jr., S. Archibeque, S. J. Del Grosso, J. D. Derner, et al. 2011.  Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas fluxes in agriculture: Challenges and opportunities. Task Force Report No. 142, 106 pp, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Ames, Iowa, USA.

Briske, D. D., J. D. Derner, D. G. Milchunas, and K. W. Tate. 2011. An evidence-based assessment of prescribed grazing practices. In: D.D. Briske (ed.). Conservation Benefits of Rangeland Practices: Assessment, Recommendations, and Knowledge Gaps. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. pp. 21-74.

Adiku, S. G. K., L. R. Ahuja, G. H. Dunn, J. D. Derner, A. A. Andales, L. Garcia, and P. N. S. Bartling. 2011. Parameterization of the GPFARM-Range model for simulating rangeland productivity. In: L. R. Ahuja and L. Ma (eds.). Methods of Introducing System Models into Agricultural Research. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Crop Science Society of America, Inc., and Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI. pp. 209-228.

Blumenthal, D. M., A. P. Norton, S. E. Cox, E. M. Hardy, G. E. Liston, L. Kennaway, D. T. Booth, and J. D. Derner. 2011. Linaria dalmatica invades south-facing slopes and less grazed areas in grazing-tolerant mixed-grass prairie. Biological Invasions doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0085-9.

Briske, D. D., N. F. Sayre, L. Huntsinger, M. Fernandez-Gimenez, B. Budd, and J. D. Derner. 2011. Origin, persistence, and resolution of the rotational grazing debate: Integrating human dimensions into rangeland research. Rangeland Ecology & Management 64:325–334.

Derner, J. D., K. R. Hickman, and H. W. Polley. 2011. Decreasing precipitation variability does not elicit major aboveground biomass or plant diversity responses in a mesic rangeland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 64:352–357.

Knight, K. B., T. P. Toombs, and J. D. Derner. 2011. Cross-fencing on private US rangelands: financial costs and producer risks. Rangelands 33(2):41-44.

Derner, J. D. and R. H. Hart. 2010. Livestock responses to complementary forages in shortgrass steppe. Great Plains Research 20:223-28.

Dumanski, J., R. L. Desjardins, R. Lal, P. L. De Freitas, P. Gerber, H. Steinfeld, L. Verchot, G. E. Schuman, J. D. Derner, and M. Rosegrant. 2010. Global potentials for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. In: K. Stigter (ed.) Applied Agrometeorology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 977-982.

Dumanski, J., R. L. Desjardins, R. Lal, P. L. De Freitas, P. Gerber, H. Steinfeld, L. Verchot, G. E. Schuman, J. D. Derner, and M. Rosegrant. 2010. Strategies and economies for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. In: K. Stigter (ed.) Applied Agrometeorology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 983-988.

Dumanski, J., R. L. Desjardins, R. Lal, and M. Rosegrant (with boxes contributed by P. L. De Freitas, J. N. Landers, P. Gerber, H. Steinfeld, L. Verchot, G. E. Schuman, and J. D. Derner). 2010. Supporting evidence for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. In: K. Stigter (ed.) Applied Agrometeorology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 989-996.

Smart, A. J., J. D. Derner, J. R. Hendrickson, R. L. Gillen, B. H. Dunn, E. M. Mousel, P. S. Johnson, R. N. Gates, K. K. Sedive, K. R. Harmoney, J. D. Volesky, and K. C. Olson. 2010. Effects of grazing pressure on efficiency of grazing on North American Great Plains rangelands. Rangeland Ecology Management 63:397–406.

Borchgrevink, M. B., J. D. Derner, T. R. Weston, R. A. Olson, G. E. Schuman, and B. W. Hess. 2010. Small mammal and plant community responses to mechanical disturbance and rest in Wyoming Big Sagebrush grassland. Arid Land Research and Management 24:57–67.

Toombs, T. P., J. D. Derner, D. J. Augustine, B. Krueger, and S. Gallagher. 2010.
Managing for biodiversity and livestock -A scale-dependent approach for promoting vegetation heterogeneity in western Great Plains grasslands. Rangelands 32:10-15.

Augustine, D. J., J. D. Derner, and D. G. Milchunas. 2010. Prescribed fire, grazing, and herbaceous plant production in shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology & Management 63:317–323

Morgan, J. A., R. F. Follett, L. H. Allen, Jr., S. D. Grosso, J. D. Derner, F. Dijkstra, A. Franzluebbers, R. Fry, K. Paustian, and M. M. Schoeneberger. 2010.  Carbon sequestration in agricultural lands of the United StatesJournal of Soil and Water Conservation 65:6A-13A.  doi:10.2489/jswc.65.1.6A

Anderson, L. J., J. D. Derner, H. W. Polley, W. S. Gordon, D. M. Eissenstat, and R. B. Jackson. 2010. Root responses along a subambient to elevated CO2 gradient in a C3–C4 grassland. Global Change Biology 16:454–468.

Scheintaub, M. R., J. D. Derner, E. F. Kelly, and A. K. Knapp. 2009. Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. Journal of Arid Environments 73:1136–1143

Drolet, B. S.,  M. A. Stuart, and J. D. Derner. 2009. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes grasshoppers following ingestionof rangeland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 75:3029–3033.

Derner, J. D., D. J. Augustine and B. Lauenroth. 2009. Conservation Grazing Management. Cow Country, Winter 139:10-11.

Derner, J. D.,  W. K. Lauenroth, P. Stapp and D.J. Augustine. 2009.  Livestock as ecosystem engineers for grassland bird habitat in the western Great Plains of North America. Rangeland Ecology & Management 62:111-118.

Schuman, G. E.,  L. J. Ingram, P. D. Stahl, J. D. Derner, G. F. Vance, and J. A. Morgan. 2009. Influence of management on soil organic carbon dynamics in northern mixed-grass rangeland. In: R. Lal and R.F. Follett (eds.). Soil carbon sequestration and the greenhouse effect. Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication 57, second edition, Madison, WI. pp. 169-180.

Derner, J. D. and A. J. Whitman. 2009. Plant interspaces resulting from contrasting grazing management in northern mixed-grass prairie: Implications for ecosystem function. Rangeland Ecology & Management 62:83-88.

Hart, R. H.,  J. D. Derner. 2008. Cattle grazing on the shortgrass steppe. In: W. K. Lauenroth and I. C.Burke (eds.). Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: A long‐term perspective. Oxford University Press. pp.447‐458.

Burke, I. C., W. K. Lauenroth, M. F. Antolin, J. D. Derner, D. G. Milchunas, J. A. Morgan, P. Stapp . 2008. The future of the shortgrass steppe. In:  W. K. Lauenroth and I. C. Burke (eds.). Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: A long‐term perspective. Oxford University Press, pp. 484‐510.

Derner, J. D., R. H. Hart, M. A. Smith, and J. W. Waggoner Jr. 2008. Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie. Livestock Science 117:60-69.

Weston, T. R., J. D. Derner, C. M. Murrieta, D. C. Rule, and B. W. Hess. 2008. Comparison of catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids in freeze-dried forage samples. Crop Science 48:1636-1641.

Morgan, J. A., J. D. Derner, D. G. Milchunas, and E. Pendall. 2008. Management implications of global change for Great Plains rangelands. Rangelands 30:18-22.

Ingram, L. J., P. D. Stahl, G. E. Schuman, J. S. Buyer, G. F. Vance, G. K. Ganjegunte, J. M. Welker, and Derner, J. D. 2008. Grazing impacts on soil carbon and microbial communities in a mixed-grass ecosystemSoil Science Society of America Journal 72:939-948.

Norton, U., A. R. Mosier, J. A. Morgan, J.D. Derner, L.J. Ingram, and P.D. Stahl. 2008. Moisture pulses, trace gas emissions and soil C and N in cheatgrass and native grass-dominated sagebrush-steppe in Wyoming, USA. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40:1421-1431.

Briske, D. D., J. D. Derner, J. R. Brown, S. D. Fuhlendorf, W. R. Teague, K. M. Havstad,  R. L. Gillen, A. J. Ash, and W. D.Willms,  2008. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence. Rangeland Ecology & Management 61:3-17.

Derner, J. D.,  B.W. Hess, R.A. Olson, and  G.E. Schuman.  2008. Functional group and species responses to precipitation in three semi-arid rangeland ecosystems. Arid Lands Research & Management 22:81-92.

Polley, H. W., B. J. Wilsey, and J. D. Derner. 2007. Dominant species constrain effects of species diversity on temporal variability in biomass production of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 116:2044-2052.


Derner, J. D. and R. H. Hart,  2007. Livestock and vegetation responses to rotational grazing in short-grass steppe. Western North American Naturalist 67:359-367.

Hickman, K. R. and J. D. Derner. 2007. Blackland tallgrass prairie vegetation dynamics following cessation of herbicide application. Rangeland Ecology & Management 60:186-190.

Derner, J. D. and G. E. Schuman. 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: a synthesis of land management and precipitation effects. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 62:77-85. 

Derner, J. D. and R. H. Hart.  2007. Grazing-induced modifications to peak standing crop in northern mixed-grass prairie. Rangeland Ecology & Management 60:270-276. 

Derner, J. D., T. W. Boutton, and  D. D. Briske.   2006. Grazing and ecosystem carbon storage in the North American Great Plains. Plant and Soil 280:77-90.

Polley, H. W., B. J. Wilsey, J. D. Derner, H. B. Johnson, and J. Sanabria.  2006. Early-successional plants regulate grassland productivity and species composition: a removal experiment. Oikos 113:287-295. 

Andales, A. A., J. D. Derner,  L. R. Ahuja, and R. H. Hart. 2006. Strategic and tactical prediction of forage production in northern mixed-grass prairie. Rangeland Ecology & Management 59:576-584.

Potter, K. N., and J. D. Derner. 2006. Soil carbon pools in central Texas: prairies, restored grasslands and croplands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61:124-128.

Weston, T. R., J. D.Derner, C. M. Murrieta, D. C. Rule, and B. W. Hess,  2006. Comparison of catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids in freeze-dried forage samples. Proc. Western Section, American Society of Animal Science 57:245-248.

Derner, J. D., J. K. Detling, and  M. F. Antolin. 2006.Are livestock gains affected by blacktailed prairie dogs? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4:459-464.

Weston, T. R., R. A. Olson, V. Nayigihugu, S. L. Lake, J. D. Derner, G. E. Schuman, and B. W. Hess. 2005. Characteristics and potential nutritive value of sagebrush-grassland vegetation collected from sites continuously grazed, rested for one year and one year post-disturbance. Proceedings of the Western Section, American Society of Animal Science. 56:9-12. 

Derner, J. D., C. R. Tischler, H. W. Polley, and H. B. Johnson. 2005.  Seedling growth of two honey mesquite varieties under CO2 enrichment.  Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:292-298.
 
Derner, J. D., G. E. Schuman, M. Jawson, S. R. Shafer, J. A. Morgan, H. W. Polley, G. B. Runion, S. A. Prior, H. A. Torbert, H. H. Rogers, J. Bunce, L. Ziska, J. W. White, A. J. Franzluebbers, J. D. Reeder, R. T. Venterea, and L. A. Harper. 2005  USDA-ARS global change research on rangelands and pasturelands Rangelands 27:36-42.

Polley, H. W., J. D. Derner, and B. J. Wilsey.  2005.  Patterns of plants species diversity in remnant and restored tallgrass prairies.  Restoration Ecology 13:480-487.

Andales, A. A., J. D. Derner, P. N. S. Bartling, L. R. Ahuja, G. H. Dunn, R. H. Hart, and J. D. Hanson.  2005.  Evaluation of GPFARM for simulation of forage production and cow-calf weights.  Rangeland Ecology and Management 58:247-255.
 
Derner, J. D. and R. H. Hart.  2005.  Heifer performance under two stocking rates on fourwing saltbush-dominated rangeland. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58:489-494.

Mooney, S., G. F. Vance, J. D. Derner, and G. Schuman. 2005.  Committee participation furthers carbon sequestration research.  University of Wyoming, College of Agriculture, Reflections. 
 
Blank, R.R., and Derner, J.D. 2004. Effects of CO2 enrichment on plant-soil relationships of Lepidium latifolium. Plant and Soil 262:159-167.

Derner, J. D., and X. B. Wu.  2004. Spatial patterns of light gaps in mesic grasslands. Journal of Range Management 57:393-398.

Derner, J. D., H. W. Polley, H. B.  Johnson, and C. R. Tischler, . 2004. Structural attributes of Schizachyrium scoparium in restored Texas Blackland prairiesRestoration Ecology 12:80-84.

Derner, J. D., C. R. Tischler, H. W. Polley, and H. B. Johnson. 2004. Intergenerational above-and belowground responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to elevated CO2. Basic & Applied Ecology  5:145-152.

Polley, H. W., B. J. Wilsey, and J. D. Derner. 2003. Do species evenness and plant diversity influence the magnitude of selection and complementarity effects in annual plant species mixtures? Ecology Letters 6:248-256.

Polley, H. W., H. B. Johnson, and  J. D. Derner. 2003. Increasing CO2 from subambient to superambient concentrations alters species composition and increases above-ground biomass in a C3/C4 grassland. New Phytologist 160:319-327. 2003.

Derner, J. D., H. B. Johnson, B. A. Kimball, P. J. Pinter Jr., H. W. Polley, C. R. Tischler, T. W. Boutton, R. L. LaMorte, G. W. Wall, N. R. Adam, S. W. Leavitt, M. J. Ottman, A. D. Matthias, and T. J. Brooks. 2003. Above- and belowground responses of C3-C4 species mixtures to elevated CO2 and soil water availability. Global Change Biology 9:452-460.

Polley, H. W., C. R. Tischler,  H. B. Johnson, and J. D. Derner. 2002. Growth rate and survivorship of drought: CO2 effects on the presumed tradeoff in seedlings of five woody legumes. Tree Physiology  22:383-391.

Polley, H. W.,  H. B. Johnson, and J. D. Derner. 2002. Soil- and plant-water dynamics in a C3/C4 grassland exposed to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient. Global Change Biology 8:1118-1129.

Derner, J. D., H. W. Polley, H. B. Johnson, and C. R. Tischler. 2001.  Root system responses of C4 grass seedlings to CO2 and soil water. Plant and Soil 231:97-104.

Derner, J. D., and X. B  Wu. 2001. Light distribution in mesic grasslands: spatial patterns and temporal dynamics. Applied Vegetation Science 4:189-196.

Derner, J. D. and D. D Briske. 2001. Below-ground carbon and nitrogen accumulation in perennial grasses: A comparison of caespitose and rhizomatous growth forms. Plant and Soil 237:117-127.

Derner, J. D., and D. D. Briske. 1999. Does a tradeoff exist between morphological and physiological root plasticity? A comparison of grass growth forms. Acta Oecologia 20:519-526. 

Derner, J. D., and D. D. Briske. 1999.  Intraclonal regulation in a perennial, caespitose grass: a field evaluation of above- and belowground resource availability. Journal of Ecology 87:737-747. 

Derner, J. D., and D. D. Briske. 1998. An isotopic (15N) assessment of intraclonal regulation in C4, perennial grasses: ramet interdependence, independence or both? Journal of Ecology  86:305-314.
 

Briske, D. D., and  J.D. Derner. 1998.  Clonal biology of caespitose grassesIn: Cheplick, G.P. (ed.) Population Biology of Grasses, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  106-136.

Derner, J. D., D. D. Briske, and  T. W. Boutton. 1997. Does grazing mediate soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation beneath C4 perennial grasses along an environmental gradient? Plant and Soil 191:147-156. 

Derner, J. D.,  R. L. Gillen, F. T. McCollum, and K. W. Tate. 1994. Little bluestem tiller defoliation patterns under continuous and rotational grazing. Journal of  Range Management 47:220-225. 

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